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# Chemical

Kinetics
In this chapter, you will learn
why some chemical changes
are faster than others and the
conditions that make the rate
of one chemical different
from others.
What is Chemical Kinetics?
 Alsoknown as reaction kinetics, the
branch of physical chemistry that is
concerned with understanding the rates
of chemical reactions.
The rate of a reaction
 The rate of a chemical reaction is a
measure of the quantity of products
produced per unit time or the amount of
reactant reacted/consumed per unit of
time.
The rate of a reaction
 Rate of reaction is the rate at which
chemical reaction proceeds.
 The rate of a reaction means change in
concentration of reactant or product per
unit time.
 This is important in the choice of the
material used to produce certain
products.
The rate of a reaction
Rate = Change in concentration of product
time
= Concentration of product at time t – Initial concentration of product
time
= [P]t – [P]0 = [P]
time time

## * [P] is the change in amount, usually in terms of concentration product.

On the other hand, if the rate is expressed in terms of reactant, the equation
becomes:
Rate = Change in concentration of reactant
time
= Concentration of product at time t – Initial concentration of reactant
time
= [A]t – [A]0 = [A]
time time

## * [A] denotes change in amount of the reactant A in concentration.

If the rate is expressed in terms of reactant B, the equation becomes:
Rate = [B]t – [B]0 = [B]
time time
FACTORS THAT
AFFECT AFFECTION
RATES

## Reaction rate is dependent on several factors,

namely, temperature, concentration, surface area,
presence of catalyst and nature of reactants
Temperature
If the temperature of the reacting system is increased,
the reaction can be observed to proceed faster. In general, if
the reaction temperature is increased by 10°C, the reaction
becomes 2 or 3 times faster. According to the kinetic
molecular theory “as the temperature increases, the average
kinetic energy of molecules also increases.”

## The activation energy, which has a constant value for

a given set of reactants, is based on the average energy of
reacting substances. It means that by increasing the temp,
more reacting molecules attain energies equal to or even
higher than the requ9ired minimum energy barrier. Hence,
increasing the temperature of the system increases the rate of
reaction.
Concentration
In general, increasing the concentration of reactants
increases the reaction rate.The specific effect of the change in
reactant concentration on reaction can be described by the rate
law. A rate law is an equation that links the reaction rate with the
concentrations or pressures of the reactants.
Surface Area
Increasing the surface area of a solid reactant exposes
more of its particle to attack. This results in an increased chance
of collisions between reactant particles, so there are more
collisions in any given time and rate of reaction increases.
As we increase the surface area of the reactants, we
increase the rate of reaction.
Presence of Catalyst
A catalyst increases reaction rates in a slightly different
way from other methods of increasing reaction rate. The function
of a catalyst is to lower the activation energy so that a greater
proportion of the particles have enough energy to react. A
catalyst can lower the activation energy for a reaction by: (a)
orienting the reacting particles in such a way that successful
collisions are more likely (b) reacting with the reactants to form an
intermediate that requires lower energy to form the product.
Nature of Reactants
For reaction to occur, the reactants must absorb a
certain amount of energy called activation energy, Ea. The
activation energy serves as an energy barrier that reactant
molecules must overcome to be converted to the products. The
lower the energy barrier, the easier it is to form the products.
The Rate Law
(mood habang ginagawa to):
Rate Law
 is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of
the reactants.

## Rate = k [A]^x [B]^y

where:
Rate = rate of chemical reaction, based on formation of the
products or one of the products or rate of disappearance of the reactants
or one of the reactants.
k = specific reaction rate constant, dependent on the kind of
reaction and dependent on temperature.
[A] = molar concentration of reactant
x, y = exponents showing the magnitude of the effect of the
reactant on the rate of reaction. The values give the order of the reaction
with respect to each reactant.
Kinetic Equations
 From the rate law, a general expression can be written for the effect
of the reactant concentration on the rate of a one-reactant
reaction represented as

A Products,

By the equation:
Rate = kn [A]^n

## Where n is the order of the reaction with respect to the

reactant. For each type of reaction, the kinetic equation takes a
form that is specific for the order of the reaction.
Zero-Order Reactions, n = 0
A reaction is said to be zero order when the rate of
the reaction is independent of the concentration of the
reactants. For this type of reaction, the rate law can be
written as:

Rate = ko [A]^0
Which gives:
Rate = ko
First-Order Reactions, n=1
A reaction is first order if the rate of the reaction
varies directly with the concentration of the reactant. The
rate law takes the form:

Rate = k1 [A]
Second-Order Reactions
Some one-reactant reactions are second order in
nature. For this type of reaction, A Product, the rate
law can be written as:

Rate = k2 [A]^2
Half-life of a Reaction
By the definition, the half-life, t1Τ2, of a reaction is the time
required to convert 1Τ2 of the reactant to the product. This means
that t = t1Τ2, when [A]t = 1Τ2 [A]0

## The equation tells us that the concentration of the

reactant will not affect the half-life of a one-reactant first-order
reaction or that the half-life will not be affected by the initial
reactant concentration. This means that the half-life of a first-order
reaction is constant.
THE COLLISION THEORY
According to the collision theory, reactant
molecules need to collide with one another before
reaction can occur. However, not all molecular
collisions between reactant molecules lead to
formation of products. Molecular collisions lead to the
formation of products are called effective collisions.
Effective Collisions
Two conditions must be satisfied to consider a collision
effective. These are sufficient energy and proper orientation of
molecules. Sufficient energy is needed to cause the molecules to
overcome the energy barrier, Ea, needed to convert reactant to
product molecules. The reacting atoms in a molecule need to
collide with the proper atoms to form bonds. Both conditions must
be satisfied for collisions to be effective.
The collision theory explains the effect of concentration
rate. As the concentration of the reactants increases, the
probability of having a greater number of molecular collisions
increases, the number of effective collisions increases and the
reaction rate increases. As the temperature increases, the kinetic
energy of molecules increases and the number of colliding
molecules also increases. This cause more molecules to cross the
energy barrier and the reaction rate increases.
CATALYSIS
is a substance that changes the speed of a reaction
without undergoing any permanent change.
Activation Energy
Reactant molecules need to absorb a certain
amount of energy to overcome the energy barrier, Ea, to
the conversion of the reactants to products. Only those
reactant molecules that possess energy higher than the
barrier are converted to products.

## Catalysis can be classified into two types:

homogenous catalysis and heterogeneous catalysis.
2 types of catalysis
Homogenous Heterogeneous
catalysis catalysis
This kind of catalysis Heterogeneous catalysis is also
called a contact catalyst. This involves a
involves a catalyst which is of the catalyst which is of a different physical state
same physical state as the from the reactants. The commonly used
reactants. The catalyst changes the catalysts are fine or powdered solids. In this
reaction rate by forming an type of catalysis, the catalyst provides a
surface as the site of the reaction. The
intermediate with one or both of the reacting molecules attach to specific sites on
reactants. the surface of the catalyst by a process called
Homogenous catalyst adsorption. This causes the bonds within the
reacting molecules to weaken, making them
functions by forming intermediates. more reactive to the other reacting species.
After formation of the product, the temporary
catalyst-reactant bonds formed on the
surface breaks, leaving the surface of the
catalyst free and ready for another catalytic
action. The process occurs repeatedly until all
reactants are consumed.
Heterogeneous catalyst functions