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Group 1

 The 1872 Cavite Mutiny

 The other was the martyrdom
of the three martyr priests
 Jose Montero y Vidal, a
prolific Spanish historian
documented the event and
highlighted it as an attempt
of the Indios to overthrow
the Spanish government in
the Philippines
 Gov. Gen. Rafael Izquierdo’s
official report magnified the
event and made use of it to
implicate the native clergy,
which was then active in the
call for secularization
 Izquierdo blamed the unruly
Spanish Press for “stockpiling”
malicious propagandas grasped
by the Filipinos. He reported to
the King of Spain that the
“rebels” wanted to overthrow
the Spanish government to
install a new “hari” in the likes
of Fathers Burgos and
Zamora. The general even
added that the native clergy
enticed other participants by
giving them charismatic
assurance that their fight will
not fail because God is with
them coupled with handsome
promises of rewards such as
employment, wealth, and ranks
in the army.
 on 20 January 1872, the district
of Sampaloc celebrated the
feast of the Virgin of Loreto,
unfortunately participants to
the feast celebrated the
occasion with the usual
fireworks displays. Allegedly,
those in Cavite mistook the
fireworks as the sign for the
attack, and just like what was
agreed upon, the 200-men
contingent headed by Sergeant
Lamadrid launched an attack
targeting Spanish officers at
sight and seized the arsenal.
 Gov. Izquierdo, he readily
ordered the reinforcement of
the Spanish forces in Cavite
to quell the revolt.
 Major instigators including
Sergeant Lamadrid were
killed in the skirmish, while
the GOMBURZA were tried
by a court-martial and were
sentenced to die by
 Patriots like Joaquin Pardo de
Tavera, Antonio Ma. Regidor,
Jose and Pio Basa and other
abogadillos were suspended
by the Audencia (High Court)
from the practice of law,
arrested and were sentenced
with life imprisonment at the
Marianas Island.
 Dr. Trinidad Hermenigildo Pardo de
Tavera, a Filipino scholar and researcher,
wrote the Filipino version of the bloody
incident in Cavite. In his point of view,
the incident was a mere mutiny by the
native Filipino soldiers and laborers of
the Cavite arsenal who turned out to be
dissatisfied with the abolition of their
privileges. Indirectly, Tavera blamed
Gov. Izquierdo’s cold-blooded policies
such as the abolition of privileges of the
workers and native army members of
the arsenal and the prohibition of the
founding of school of arts and trades for
the Filipinos, which the general believed
as a cover-up for the organization of a
political club.
 On 20 January 1872, about 200 men
comprised of soldiers, laborers of the
arsenal, and residents of Cavite
headed by Sergeant Lamadrid rose in
arms and assassinated the
commanding officer and Spanish
officers in sight.
 After two days, the mutiny was
officially declared subdued.
 Tavera believed that the Spanish friars
and Izquierdo used the Cavite Mutiny
as a powerful lever by magnifying it as
a full-blown conspiracy involving not
only the native army but also included
residents of Cavite and Manila, and
more importantly the native clergy to
overthrow the Spanish government in
the Philippines.
 It is noteworthy that during the
time, the Central Government in
Madrid announced its intention to
deprive the friars of all the powers
of intervention in matters of civil
government and the direction and
management of educational
 The friars, fearing that their
influence in the Philippines would
be a thing of the past, took
advantage of the incident and
presented it to the Spanish
Government as a vast conspiracy
organized throughout the
archipelago with the object of
destroying Spanish sovereignty.
 First, there was dissatisfaction
among the workers of the arsenal
as well as the members of the
native army after their privileges
were drawn back by Gen.
 Second, Gen. Izquierdo introduced
rigid and strict policies that made
the Filipinos move and turn away
from Spanish government out of
 Third, the Central Government
failed to conduct an investigation
on what truly transpired but relied
on reports of Izquierdo and the
friars and the opinion of the public;
 Fourth, the happy days of the
friars were already numbered in
1872 when the Central
Government in Spain decided to
deprive them of the power to
intervene in government affairs
as well as in the direction and
management of schools
prompting them to commit
frantic moves to extend their stay
and power;
 Fifth, the Filipino clergy
members actively participated in
the secularization movement in
order to allow Filipino priests to
take hold of the parishes in the
country making them prey to the
rage of the friars;
 Sixth, Filipinos during the time
were active participants, and
responded to what they deemed as
injustices; and
 Lastly, the execution of
GOMBURZA was a blunder on the
part of the Spanish government,
for the action severed the ill-
feelings of the Filipinos and the
event inspired Filipino patriots to
call for reforms andeventually
independence. There may be
different versions of the event, but
one thing is certain, the 1872
Cavite Mutiny paved way for a
momentous 1898.