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 European powers considered retaking control

of the former colonies in the Americas

 American lawmakers wanted to deter foreign
countries from taking lands that U.S may
someday claim
 Example: Pacific Northwest
 Stated U.S would view any attempts to
further colonize the Americas as “dangerous
to our peace and safety”.
 December 2, 1823
 Also said U.S would not “interfere in the
internal concerns” of Europe
 What does this mean?
 Americans were slowly developing their own
unique culture
 What can we define as part of culture?

 Does the culture developed then still

influence the way Americans live today?
 French philosopher
 “America is a land of
wonders, in which
everything is in
constant motion and
every change seems an
 Americans no longer
imitating European
cultures like before
 Before 1800 American artists and writers
were paid little respect
 Why was this true?

 1825 Thomas Cole helped establish Hudson

River school
 A group of artists whose landscapes both
depicted and celebrated the American
 American authors gained respect in early
 Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper
and William Cullen Bryant
 Proved Americans could create literature and
that people on both sides of the Atlantic
would respect American works
 Americans had unique version of the English
 1828 new American English was published by
Noah Webster in Dictionary
 It defined thousands of words that have never
been included in dictionary before

 Why is this important?

 The belief that the interests of the nation as a
whole are more important than regional
interests or the interests of other countries
 This spirit replaced the tendency toward
Sectionalism- the belief that one’s own
region of the country is more important than
the whole
 At what times in our history have we been
more inclined to be more nationalistic or lean
more towards sectionalism?

 Which one is “better” for our country?

 Pros/Cons for each?

 Chief Justice of Supreme Court from 1801-
 Firm believer in strong national gov.
 His court made two key rulings that reflected
growing feelings of nationalism and
promoted it by strengthening the national
 McCulloch v. Maryland
 1819 pitted the state of
Maryland against the
national government
 John Marshall sided with
national gov.
 National Interests to be put
above states
 1824- case involved cutting-edge
transportation technology: steamboats
 Rival steamboat companies operating in New
 Aaron Ogden got permission from N.Y to run
his business. Thomas Gibbons had license
from national gov. to run his
 Who do you think Marshall ruled with?

 Tariff to protect American

 Sale of gov. lands to raise
money for national gov.
 Maintenance of national
 Government funding of
internal improvements or
public projects like roads
and canals
 It was never implemented as a unified policy
 However government did establish tariffs and
a bank
 Shows how nationalist feelings and desire to
bring country together were on minds of
Americans at this time
 Americans were proud of their victory in War
of 1812
 Beginning of so called “Era of good feelings”
 James Monroe- Elected president in 1816
 Served 2 terms (1817-1825)
 Under Monroe, economy grew rapidly and
feeling of nationalism and optimism prevailed

 In 1818, signed with Britain

 Provided for near complete
disarmament of eastern
part of border between U.S
and British-Canada
 Convinced Britain to draw
western part of border
between U.S and Canada
along 49th parallel
 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams
reached agreement with Spain
 U.S acquired Florida and established
boundary between Louisiana territory and
Spanish territory to the west
 Adams even convinced Spain and Russia to
give up their claims to disputed Oregon
Country and allow settlers to travel to Oregon
 Nationalism also inspired by rapid growth of
American settlement
 By 1818 settlers spread beyond Mississippi
River into Missouri, most from South

 1 in 6 settlers were enslaved African-

 When they applied to join the Union, it
caused an uproar
 1819 there were 22 states in Union
 Slavery was legal in half, illegal in other half
 Equal balance gave equal representation in
U.S Senate
 What would happen if a slave state was
 1820 Missouri was admitted as a slave state
 Maine was admitted as a free state
 Thus the balance was preserved
 Agreement also banned slavery in northern
part of Louisiana Territory.
 Kept the balance of slave and free states
 However feelings of sectionalism in North
and South were beginning to emerge