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Evolution of the DVB Standards

The DVB Project

• Founded in 1993 with 8 Members

• Currently 280 Member Organisations in 34 Countries

• First Generation systems widely adopted worldwide

• Many DVB standards and specifications adopted by ETSI

• Second Generation systems now under development


ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
Publications
• •TR - Technical Report: typically a set of guidelines for the implementation of a more normative specification or
standard. A TR is approved by the ETSI Technical Committee which proposes the document.

• •TS - Technical Specification: a document which can contain normative text, i.e. mandatory text such as "shall". A
TS is approved by the ETSI Technical Committee which proposes the document, and as such might lack some of
the weight associated with the following publications. A DVB TS is generally a stepping stone to a more stable
document(s).

• •ES - ETSI Specification: a document approved by the entire ETSI membership, not just the Technical Committee
proposing it. It is a more stable document, than either a TR or a TS.

• •EN - European Standard: the highest ranking ETSI publication approved by the national standards organisations
of Europe. An EN is a publication which can be and often is included in European and national legislation.

• •DVB BlueBooks - From time to time, DVB publishes documents following their approval by its Steering Board:
the BlueBooks. In practice, these are either commercial requirements documents, policy statements, or technical
specifications which are in the process of being standardised. In the latter case, DVB has decided that there is
value in the rapid publication of draft specifications as BlueBooks, pending their formal standardisation.
BlueBooks are subject to modification and a published ETSI standard takes precedence over its corresponding
BlueBook.
First Generation Broadcast TV Standards

• Based on the highest performance consumer technology then available


• Some Early UK STBs could only support 2K modes

• Development time/costs minimised by re-using common modules

• DVB-S Approved in December 1993


• Single carrier QPSK mode
• Single Transport Stream

• DVB-C Approved in March 1994


• Single carrier with 4, 16 and 64QAM modes
• Single Transport Stream

• DVB-T Approved in December 1995


• 2K and 8K COFDM with 4, 16 and 64QAM
• Two transport streams using Hierarchical Modulation
First Generation Mobile TV Standards

• DVB-H Approved November 2004


• Based on DVB-T Transmission
• MPEG4 in IP over Transport Streams
• Time Slicing for power reduction

• DVB-SH Approved February 2007


• Adds a Satellite based link to DVB-H
• Adds 1K FFT and 1.7MHz channel
• TDM or COFDM via UHF, L-Band and S-Band

Q
• T-DMB: Terrestrial- Digital Media Broadcast
• Based on DAB transmission: π/4-shift-DQPSK COFDM
• Up to 1.74 Mbits/s with MPEG4 in IP over Transport Stream I
• No time slicing
Why Are New Standards Being Developed?

• New Services Require Increasingly Higher Bandwidths


• HDTV, 3DTV and Interactive TV

• New Business Models Demand More Flexible Delivery


• IP, Mobile and Fixed Broadcasting

• Increasingly Expensive Spectrum must be Better Utilized


• Competition for limited resources with telcos

• New Technologies enable more complex systems


• Low Cost High Speed Processors
• High Performance Algorithms
DVB 2.0 - Second Generation Broadcasting
Standards
DVB-S2
EN302 307

Dec 2003
DVB-S2: New Features over DVB-S
• New Modulation and Forward Error Correction (FEC)
• 30% Higher bandwidth enables more HDTV, SDTV and IP services

• Dynamically variable modulation and FEC


• Optimal bandwidth utilization for different service types
• Robust delivery in poor weather conditions

• Multiple Input streams


• Independent and Flexible Operation between service providers
• Hierachical Mode for backwards compatibility with legacy STBs

• Supports non-compliant Transport Stream formats e.g. IP


• “Null” (PID8191) TS packets need not always be transmitted
• No need for Transport Stream packetization overhead
• No conversion simplifies interoperability
DVB-S2: New Technology Requirements
• “New” High Performance FEC (BCH, LDPC)
• Originally developed in the 1960s
• Large Frame Size (64800bits)
• Also adopted for DVB-T2 and DVB-C2
• Requires large memory and high processing power

• New modulation schemes (8PSK, 16APSK, 32APSK)


• Requires high performance demodulators

• Modulation can be changed for every Physical Layer Frame


• Different/variable bit rates for each Input Stream
• Different FEC for robust reception in bad weather (snow/rain)
• Requires more complex demodulators

BCH=Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem
LDPC=Low Density Parity Check Code
Channel coding
Channel coding

Block Convolutional Concatenated


codes codes codes
(1955: Elias, (1966: David Forney)
Data Code 1967: Andrew Viterbi)
+ + out1

Cyclical using
group/field
Block code+
group code theory in interleaver+
of linear
algebra
block code
+ out2
Block code+
BCH Hamming General interleaver+
Turbo
(1960) block code Convol.
(1950) codes
code
(1993:
Reed-Solomon LDPC concat.
(1963) (1963: Gallager) convol.
codes)
DVB-S2: Block Diagram

MPEG-2 DVB-S
TS Framing
Hierarchical
Modulation

MPEG2 TS 1
Stream Physical RF
MPEG2 TS n Adaptation FEC IQ
Layer
GSE (IP) 1 & Encoding Modulator
Framing
Framing
GSE (IP) n

• MPEG2 TS Fixed 188Byte packet Structure


• GSE (IP) Fixed length packet structures,
Arbitrary length packets, continuous data streams,
or IP streams

32APSK
DVB-S2 Physical Layer Framing

PL Frame PL PL Frame
Header Data Header Frame Data Header Data

• PL Header: Transmission parameters for next Frame


• Modulation Type QPSK, 8PSK, 16APSK, 32APSK
• FEC ¼, 1/3, 2/5, ½, 3/5, 2/3,¾, 4/5, 5/6, 8/9, 9/10

• PL Header sent in robust BPSK to ensure reception


DVB-S2: Multiple IP, GSE or TS Inputs

• Direct support for multiple input streams at the same time


• One or more different Transport Streams (TS)
• One or more data streams (IP)
• Generic Stream Encapsulated (GSE) data (DVB A116)
• Broadcast/DSNG or Interactive Applications

• Different modulation schemes for each stream


• QPSK, 8PSK, 16APSK, 32APSK

• Highly Optimised Forward Error Correction


• Enables Operation close (<1.2dB) to Shannon limit

30% Higher Bit rates than DVB-S


DVB-C2
EN302 769

April 2009
DVB-C2: Channel Bonding

Unused
parts of the Narrowband
spectrum interference

Receiver bandwidth Selective gain adaptation


DVB-C2: Technical Summary
• Based on DVB-T2
• COFDM (4K mode, 2 short guard intervals)
• Channel raster bandwidth 6 or 8 MHz
• QPSK … 4096QAM
• Variable coding and modulation
• Channel bundling
• Copes with notches (interfered frequency ranges)
• Uses the same BBFRAME/FEC structure as DVB-S2
• Multiple TS and GSE
• Single and multiple input streams
• Data slices
• Reserved carriers for Peak to Average Power Reduction

>50% Higher Bit rates than DVB-C


DVB-C2 Bit Rates
DVB-T2
EN302 755

May 2008
DVB-T2: Key Commercial Requirements

• Re-use existing domestic antennae and transmiitter network

• Support Portable and fixed Receivers

• At least 30% > capacity than DVB-T

• Improved SFN Performance

• Service Specific Robustness

• Bandwidth and Frequency Flexibility

• Reduce Peak to Average Power Ratio


DVB-T2: New Technology over DVB-T

• Many new transmission options:


• New Channel Bandwidths, Guard Intervals and FFT Modes
• 8 Different Pilot Patterns
• Extended Carrier Modes
• Rotated and Q-delayed constellations
• Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) Modes
• Peak to Average Power Reduction (PAPR) Modes

• Modulation dynamically variable for each “COFDM Cell”


• Every carrier in each symbol independently controllable
• System/Control data sent in fixed format highly robust symbols

• DVB-S2 FEC plus extensive time and frequency interleaving


• Further improves robustness in noisy environments
DVB-T2: Benefits over DVB-T
• New Modulation, FEC and Transmission modes
• 30 - 60% More Bandwidth enables more HDTV, SDTV and IP services

• Multiple Input streams (Physical Layer Pipes = PLPs)


• Common (e.g. SI) Data and service specific (Video, audio) streams
• Independent and Flexible Operation with multiple service providers

• Dynamically variable modulation and FEC


• Mobile (time/frequency sliced) and Fixed Services in same bandwidth
• Optimal bandwidth utilization for different service types

• Direct Support for non-TS formats e.g. IP


• No Transport Stream packetization overhead
• Repeated (null packets) or common (SI) data need not always be sent
• No conversion simplifies interoperability
DVB-T vs DVB-T2

DVB-T DVB-T2
Modulation QPSK, 16QAM,64QAM QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM,
256QAM
FEC Conv. Coding + RS BCH + LDPC
½,2/3,3/4,5/6,7/8 ½,3/5,2/3,3/4,5/6

Guard Interval ¼, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 ¼, 19/256, 1/8, 19/128,


1/16, 1/32, 1/128

FFT Size 2k, 4k, 8k 1k, 2k, 4k, 8k, 16k, 32k

Scattered Pilots 8% of Total 1%, 2%, 4%, 8% of Total

Continual Pilots 2.6% of Total 0.35% of Total


DVB-T2 Capacity Improvements example

DVB-T DVB-T2
Modulation 64QAM 64QAM
FFT Size 2k 32k
Guard Interval 1/32 1/32
FEC 2/3 CC + RS(8%) 5/6 LDPC + BCH
Scattered Pilots 8% 1%
Continual Pilots 2.6 % 0.5%
P1/P2 Overheads 0% 0.5%
Bandwidth Standard Extended
Capacity 24.64 Mbit/s 36.64 Mbit/s

4 MPEG-4 HDTV in one channel


DVB-T2: RF Enhancements

• Modulation 256 QAM


Q

• Rotated & Q-Delayed Constellations I

• Extended 32k carrier mode


Rotated and Q-delayed Constellations

Mod. QPSK 16QAM 64QAM 256QAM

Φ (degrees) 29.0 16.8 8.6 atan(1/16)


DVB-T2 System Overview
EN302 755: “Basic DVB-T2 System”

Only PLP inputs on a


Basic T2 System
f
t

PLP0 Bit inter-


PLP1 Input leaved Frame COFDM
processing coding & builder generation
PLPn modulation Q

PLP: Physical Layer Pipe I


EN302 755: Extended DVB-T2 System

Input Pre-processors
needed to use with
TS or GSE Inputs

Input Bit inter-


pre- Input leaved Frame COFDM
Processors processing coding & builder generation
modulation Q

Multiple
TS or GSE(IP)
Streams I
DVB-T2: Physical Layer Frame
T2 frame

P1 P2 Common Data PLP‘s Data PLP‘s Auxiliary


PLP‘s type 1 type 2 data

• P1: 1K FFT Symbol Indicating Start of T2 Frame Dummy


cells
• P2: Indicate how (L1) and when (L2) PLPs are transmitted

• Common PLP:
• Contains data shared with multiple PLPs e.g. SI Tables

• Type 1 PLP:
• Sent in single “slice” once per T2-Frame

• Type 2 PLP:
• Sent in two or more “sub-slices” per T2-Frame
DVB-T2: Complex Frame Structure
DVB-T Symbol Structure
frequency

Data Carrier Pilot t (Symbols)

l All Data Carriers use the same modulation (4,16, or 64 QAM)


l Pilot Symbols have fixed modulation (BPSK)
l 8% Overhead
DVB-T2 Frame Structure
T2 Frame T2 Frame T2 Frame
frequency

P1 Symbol Common Data Pilot Symbol t (Symbols)


P2/L1 Symbol
P2/L2 Symbol
e.g. Mobile TV l Each COFDM Cell individually Modulated
e.g. HDTV l Pilot Symbols need as little as 2% overhead
e.g SDTV or SI
DVB-T2: RF Enhancements
Q

• 256 QAM

• Rotated Constellations I

• Q-Delayed Constellations

• Extended 32k carrier mode

• Peak to Average Power Reduction (PAPR)

• Multiple Input Single Output (MISO)


• Frequency space diversity
DVB-T2: Increased Bit Rate over DVB-T
8MHz Channel, 32K FFT, 1/128GI, PP7
DVB-T2
Network Topologies
Basics of DVB-T Network
GPS
Modulation Parameter will be 1 pps 10 MHz
identical for all Programs
Example
GPS
•64 QAM, 2/3 FEC, 8k FFT, GI 1/4 1 pps 10 MHz
GPS
1 pps 10 MHz
Headend GPS Transmitter 1

1 pps 10 MHz
HD ENC
Network
TS Adaptor
SD ENC MUX SFN Adaptor Signal
out
Distribution
SD ENC

SI
SFN improves Frequency Transmitter 3

Efficency
SFN Adaptor provides „MIP“ for Transmitter 2
synchronising all Tx in a SFN
Basics of DVB-T2 Network
l Complete Transport Stream Mapped to one PLP (Physical Layer Pipe)
l Simple Structure with Constant Coding and Modulation for all programs

Headend Transmitter 1

HD ENC
TS T2- MI
SD ENC MUX out Gateway

SD ENC
Physical
Layer
Pipe

Transmitter 3

Transmitter 2
Basics of DVB-T2 Network
l Services in Transport Stream Mapped to individual PLPs

l SI data on separate common PLP

l Variable Coding and Modulation for each PLP

Headend Transmitter 1

HD ENC
TS T2- MI
SD ENC MUX out Gateway

SD ENC

Physical
Layer
Pipes Transmitter 3
PLP1,HD 256 QAM ¾

PLP2,SD 64 QAM 2/3

PLP3,SD 16 QAM 2/3 Transmitter 2

PLP0, Common SI Data


DVB-T2 recommended Configurations
8MHz Channel, 32K FFT, 1/128GI, PP7

Good coverage for 2 HDTV


programs (MPEG4)

High Bitrate for 4 HDTV


programs (MPEG4)
Broadcast TV: Single Service Provider
No Mobile or SFN

Transport P1
Stream L1
L2
TS Data

• Single PLP only (Mode A)


• Transport stream data directly mapped to PLP
• Direct Equivalent to DVB-T but Higher Bandwidths
Broadcast TV: Multiple Transport Streams
No Mobile or SFN

TS 1 PLP 1
PLP 2
TS 2 Common PLP
P1
L1
L2
• e.g. BBC1 HD on TS1 @ 8Mbits/s + 1MBit/s SI Data Common SI
BBC1 SD
• e.g. BBC1 SD on TS2 @ 2 Mbits/s + 1MBit/s SI Data BBC1 HD
• SI Data mapped to common PLP @1 Mbits
• One Service on other PLPs
Mobile and Broadcast TV:
No SFN

TS 1 Fixed
Mobile
TS2 Common PLP
P1
L1
L2
• TS 1 Contains conventional broadcast service Common SI
• TS 2 contains single Mobile service Mobile
Broadcast
• SI Data mapped to common PLP @1 Mbits
• Mobile Service Time Sliced
SFN and DVB-T2

T2-MI

• By Definition: Input Processing is NOT deterministic


• ETSI TS 102 773 defines T2 Modulator Interface T2-MI
• T2-MI data must be distributed to all SFN TX sites
• DVB-T2 MIP synchronises TX
DVB-T2: Technical Summary
• Each input stream assigned to a “Physical Layer Pipe” (PLP)
• Up to 256 PLPs carried simultaneously and independently
• Common data (e.g. SI tables) can be carried once on shared PLPs

• Uses the same BBFRAME/FEC structure as DVB-S2

• Each PLP can be separately Time and/or Frequency Interleaved

• Each PLP can be separately modulated


• QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM

• COFDM in 1.7,5,6,7,8,10MHz Bandwidths


• 1K, 2K, 4K, 8K, 16K and 32K modes
• Rotated and Q Delayed Constellation for higher robustness

>50% Higher Bit rates than DVB-T


DVB-T2 Commercial Status
DVB-T2 Trials and Equipment Tests

• June 27, 2008: Guildford, UK by BBC


• First on-air tests

• December 2008: Turin, Italy by RAI


• 45Mbits/s with 256QAM, 3/4FEC
• 4 HD streams using single-PLP mode

• March 2009: Equipment Plug Fest in Milan


• 6 x DVB-T2 Modulators and 5 x Receivers

• August 2009: Seville, Spain by Abertis Telecom


• Test Transmissions using SIDSA Receiver

• September 2009:IBC 2009


• Many Receivers, Transmitters and Test Equipment

• September 2009: Sweden by Teracom


DVB-T2 Trials and Equipment Tests

• December 2009: Winter Hill, United Kingdom


• First Commercial Broadcasts with 4x HDTV services
• Mode 7: 40.2 Mbits/s, 32K FFT, 256 QAM, 2/3 FEC, 1/128 GI
• Further rollouts over 2010 (London, Glasgow, and NE England)
• “Some” STBs available at launch but most delayed until 2010

• Q1 2010: Finland
• Trials including HDTV coverage of Winter Olympics

• 2010: Norway
• 1-2 Muxes may move to DVB-T2

• 2011: Italy
• Europa 7 plan 2 commercial muxes with HDTV Content

• 2012: Serbia
• DVB-T2 to be adopted for DTT broadcasts
DVB-T2: Coverage Testing in Germany 2009

• DVB-T (blue)
• DVB-T2 (green)
• Transmitter sites and transmitter
powers as in the current DVB-T
network in the area Hannover-
Braunschweig
• DVB-T parameters: 8K, GI 1/4,
16QAM, code rate 2/3
• DVB-T2 parameters:
16K, GI 1/8, 16QAM,
code rate 1/2, without MISO
• Reception target:
„portable light indoor“

Measurement results provided by the Technical University Braunschweig


Coverage I – DVB-T
DVB-T , 64QAM, CR 2/3, Guardinterval ¼, Bitrate 19,9MBit/s

ERP: 30 kW – Reception Mode: Roof Top – Polarization: Horizontal


Antenna height: 245m – Vertical 8 stock bays
Coverage II – DVB-T2
DVB-T2 , 256QAM, CR 3/5, 32k Ext, Guardinterval 1/128, Bitrate 36,1 MBit/s

ERP: 30 kW – Reception Mode: Roof Top – Polarization: Horizontal


Antenna height: 245m – Vertical 8 stock bays
Coverage Comparison
DVB-T vs DVB-T2

Area
Almost identical

Bitrate
81% higher in
DVB-T2

ERP: 30 kW – Reception Mode: Roof Top – Polarization: Horizontal


Antenna height: 245m – Vertical 8 stock bays
DVB-T2 Measurements I
• DVB-T2 Measurements are more complex than DVB-T

Examples

OFDM Cells
P1 Symbol before
Frequency
De-
Interleaving

PLP Cells PLP Cells


before De- before
Rotation Time
Interleaving
DVB-T2 Measurements II
• DVB-T2 Measurements are more complex than DVB-T
Examples: BUT WHO CAN TELL WHICH ONE IS GOOD, ACCTEPTABLE OR BAD

OFDM Cells
P1 Symbol before
Frequency
De-
Interleaving

PLP Cells PLP Cells


before De- before
Rotation Time
Interleaving
Network Management Centre Transmission
Report Centre
Generation

Signal Monitoring
Data
Base
Scheduling Statistics & LOGS

Remote Client 1 Remote Client n

MPEG Probe

MPEG Probe MPEG Probe


MPEG Probe MPEG Probe
Simply Manage your Transmitter Network

ALARM
Tx1!
MER low
MER = 25 dB

Warning
!
Shoulder Attn low
Crossfunctional Support of a Network
Monitoring & Management System
Capabilities Benefits Departments
Real Time Prevents and identifies
Monitoring & Network failures; Operations &
Troubleshooting Network Troubleshooting Maintenance

QoS Reports and Trend analysis, planning Planning


Statistics and QoS certification
QoS
Fraud
Revenue protection
Management Marketing

Billing Security &


Verification Billing
Revenue increase
Signaling Traffic
Accounting
The added Value
• High Availability of Transmitter Network by reducing Downtime
• Keep Network Availibility high
• Verification of Service Level Agreements (SLA)
• Keep and maintains the Quality of Service (QoS)

• Immediate Action for Service Teams in case of Transmitter / Network


Problems
• Switching & Monitoring redundancy concepts (Headends, Transmitters,Exciter
or Power Amplifier Faults)
• Maintain a SFN configuration
• Easy Localization of Faults by ideal positioning of Monitoring Probes

• Verifies and captures Quality of Service Data between


• Content Provider
• Broadcaster
• Network Operator
Summary
• Modern Measurement & Monitoring Systems will:
• Help to manage complex Networks & Technologies with a wider flexibility
• Become smaller and have more processing power
• Have intuitive GUI (easy to use)
• Cover a broad range of standards
• Have new measurement features

• Engineers
• Have to understand technologies
• Have to learn, understand and make correct interpretations from
measurement results
• Have to understand system architectures

NO MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CAN TAKE OVER THIS JOB !