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VoLTE Enabling Features

RA47073EN160GLA1 © Nokia 2016


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Objectives

After completing this module, the participant will be able to:


• Discuss Support for multiple bearers
• Describe EPS bearers for conversational voice
• Describe QCI packet scheduling and packet aggregation
• State procedures for IMS emergency call handling

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Index

• Support for multiple bearers


• EPS bearers for conversational voice (RL50)
• QCI 1 Scheduling
• Packet Aggregation
• IMS emergency call handling (RL30/45TD)

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VoLTE Network Architecture Overview

IMS Core
HSS
S6a
Cx
Sh ISC
AS

EPC Core PCR Rx P- Mw I/S- ISC


TAS
F CSCF CSCF
IMS

Gx Mg/
MME Gm Mj H.24
S1 8
MAP MGCF ISUP
S11 HLR MSS
H.24
S5 8
RTP
S-GW PGW MRFP
LTE S1-u
MGW
TDM
CS Core

SGi
PLMN/PSTN
Internet

Access IMS/Voice
Terminal Access Application
Core Core Network
Network

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Support for multiple bearers

LTE520 introduces 8 EPS bearers per UE

The following additional radio bearer combinations


per UE supported.
· SRB1 + SRB2 + 6 x AM DRB
· SRB1 + SRB2 + 7 x AM DRB
· SRB1 + SRB2 + 8 x AM DRB
· SRB1 + SRB2 + 4 x AM DRB + 3 UM DRB
· SRB1 + SRB2 + 5 x AM DRB + 2 UM DRB
· SRB1 + SRB2 + 5 x AM DRB + 3 UM DRB
MO Name Description Range (default)

LNBTS act8EpsBearers Activate 8 EPS bearers 0 (false), 1 (true)


default : False

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8 EPS bearers per UE
• Different settings of FGI Bit 7 and Bit 20, allow for different radio
bearers combinations
• Bit 7 indicates if RLC UM is supported
‒ Bit 7 can only be set to 0 if the UE does not support VoLTE
FGI Supported Bearer Combinations
both unset 4xAM DRB
• Bit 20 is set to 1 then:
FGI 7 4xAM DRB + 1xUM DRB
‒ If Bit 7 is set to 0 UE supports:
FGI 20 8xAM DRB
 SRB1 and SRB2 for DCCH + 8x AM DRB
FGI 7 & FGI 8xAM DRB / 5xAM DRB+ 3xUM
‒  If Bit 7 is set to 1: 20 DRB

 SRB1 and SRB2 for DCCH + 8x AM DRB


 SRB1 and SRB2 for DCCH + 5x AM DRB + 3x UM DRB
• Regardless of what Bit 7 and Bit 20 is set to, UE shall support at least:
‒ SRB1 and SRB2 for DCCH + 4x AM DRB
•Regardless of what Bit 20 is set to, if Bit 7 is set to 1, UE shall support at
least:
‒ SRB1 and SRB2 for DCCH + 4x AM DRB + 1x UM DRB

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Index

• Support for multiple bearers


• EPS bearers for conversational voice (RL50)
• QCI 1 Scheduling
• Packet Aggregation
• IMS emergency call handling (RL30/45TD)

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Animation
EPS Bearer Structure (Generic)

UE eNB MME SGW PGW MGW CSCF


End to End

EPS Bearer (Default) QCI-5 For SIP Signaling External Bearer

E-RAB S5 or S8-U

DRB (Default) S1-U

SRB 1 (RRC) S1-


MM
E S11 S5 or S8-C
SRB2 (NAS) NAS
Trans

End to End

EPS Bearer (Dedicated) QCI-1 For Voice External Bearer

E-RAB S5 or S8-U

DRB -Dedicated S1-U

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EPS bearers for conversational voice

With and without the feature


 There are no mechanisms  Dedicated GBR bearer with
LTE10 to ensure QoS for VoIP QCI1 is introduced for VoIP LTE10
Not activated users on the radio service Activated
interface  VoIP packets are prioritized
 VoIP treated in the same to fit into configured delay
way as any other traffic target
 e2e QoS support not
supported

LTE coverage area LTE coverage area

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
UE support for VoIP

• UE support for VoIP can be divided into two groups:


1. UE Capabilities (provided to the MME by means of FGI bits which are part of the IE: UE-EUTRA-
Capability retrieved during RRC UE Capability Transfer procedure)
- UE is considered as VoIP-capable if the following FGI bits are set to TRUE:
• bit 3 (5bit RLC UM SN, 7bit PDCP SN)
• bit 7 (RLC UM)
2. UE Voice Preferences (signaled to the MME in the Information Element ‘Voice domain preference
and UE's usage setting’)
- this IE is transferred to the MME with the help Attach Request of TAU Request messages
- each VoLTE UE, during initial attach or TAU procedure, indicates its voice domain
preferences to the MME. Those voice preferences can be configured in the following way:
• IMS PS Voice preferred and CS Voice as secondary
• IMS PS Voice only
• CS Voice preferred and IMS PS Voice as secondary
• CS Voice only
- if VoIP is available in the area, MME informs the UE about that with the help of the IE: EPS
network feature support within Attach Accept or TAU Accept message
- upon receiving IE: EPS network feature support with information that IMS PS Voice is
supported, the UE initiates the IMS Registration procedure

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VoLTE – Handset Compatibility

• UE Capability : Feature Group Indicator Decoded

VoLTE
Compatibl
e

SRVCC to
UTRAN /
GSM

Supports
TTI
Bundling

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VoLTE – Network Compatibility

• UE Voice Preference

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
VoIP Call Flow
eNB EPC IMS /
VoIP
AS

Random Access LTE Network Access

NAS Signaling Setup

Authentication and Security

Initial Context Setup


(Default Bearer and SRB2)

IMS / SIP Registration


SIP Register (via QCI5 Default Bearer)

SIP 401 Unauthorized (challenge)

SIP Register (answer)

SIP 200 OK (REGISTER)

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
VoIP Call Flow continued
eNB EPC IMS /
VoIP
AS

SIP INVITE (via QCI5 Default Bearer) VoIP Call Setup

SIP 100 Trying SIP INVITE

Alert User
(Ringing)
SIP 100 Trying

SIP 180 Ringing Pick-up phone


Ringin
g
SIP 200 OK (INVITE)

SIP 200 OK (INVITE) QCI1


bearer
Call
setup
established
Dedicated Bearer Setup (QCI1)

SIP ACK (INVITE) SIP ACK (INVITE)

Voice Media Transfer


RTP AMR (via Dedicated QCI1 Bearer) RTP AMR (via QCI1)

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
VoLTE Bearer Combination

• The VoIP service has specific bearer combination requirements.


- QCI1 dedicated bearer for the speech.
- QCI5 dedicated bearer for SIP signaling to the IMS.
- Default non-GBR bearer (QCI6-9) for data transfer (always-on).

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QCI 1 table

• QCI tables come under the


LNBTS object

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
Impact on Radio resource Management

• To ensure QoS for voice calls, both target bit rate and delay have to be maintained
‒ The Flexi BTS takes the GBR signaled via S1 interface into account for Radio
Resource Management (Admission Control and Scheduler).

• Admission Control
FL16 TL16
maxNumQci1Drb 100 36
addNumQci1DrbRadioReasHo 15 16
addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo 20 16

- GBR Bearer Threshold (RL40+): maxGbrTrafficLimit

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
Impact on Radio resource Management

Admission Control
• Under high GBR load conditions, new GBR bearer can be admitted if following conditions are fulfilled:
- new bearer has higher ARP priority than some of the already admitted bearers
- new bearer has preemption capability set to ‘yes’
- some of the ongoing GBR bearers has preemption vulnerability

• When all GBR QCIs are used, bearers with QCI2,3 or 4 can be preempted to provide resources for
VoIP call

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EPS bearers for conversational voice

Scheduler
• Dynamic scheduling for QCI 1 {no Semi Persistent Scheduling
(SPS)}
• The uplink and downlink scheduler use GBR delay budget for
scheduling decisions.
• Non-GBR data transmission may be reduced in order to achieve
the GBR for voice users
• Voice service (as based on GBR bearers) is not subjected to rate
capping functions

During silence periods, Silence Insertion Descriptor (SID) packets are


transmitted
• Size of SID packets
- With compressed RTP/UDP/IP header 26 octets
- Without compressed RTP/UDP/IP header 83 octets

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
• Radio Admission Control related parameters

MOC Abbreviated name Values Description


range: 0-600, step: 1
Threshold for the maximum number of established QCI1-
LNCEL maxNumQci1Drb default: 100 (for
GBR-DRBs in the cell
10MHz band)
Additional margin for the maximum number of active GBRs in
range: 0-600, step: 1
the cell accessing the cell via handover with HO-cause "HO
LNCEL addNumQci1DrbR default: 15 (for 10MHz
desirable for radio reasons". This margin is added to the
adioReasHo band)
threshold maxNumQci1Drb.
Additional margin for the maximum number of active GBRs in
range: 0-600, step: 1
the cell accessing the cell via hand over with HO-cause:
LNCEL addNumQci1DrbTi default: 20 (for 10MHz
"Time Critical HO". This margin is added to the threshold
meCriticalHo band)
maxNumQci1Drb.

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
KPIs • Accessibility
- LTE_5205b E-RAB Setup Attempts, QCI1
- LTE_5204b E-RAB Setup Success Ratio, QCI1
- LTE_5118a E-RAB Setup Attempts (#)
- LTE_5117c Radio Bearer Setup Success Ratio (%)
- LTE_5393a E-UTRAN E-RAB Setup Success Ratio for High Priority Calls
- LTE_5871a E-UTRAN HO Preparation Success Ratio, intra eNB for QCI1
- LTE_5872a E-UTRAN HO Preparations, intra eNB for QCI1
- LTE_5873a E-UTRAN HO Success Ratio, intra eNB for QCI1
- LTE_5874a E-UTRAN HO Attempts, intra eNB for QCI1
- LTE_5875a E-UTRAN Total HO Success Ratio, intra eNB for QCI1
- LTE_5876a E-UTRAN HO Preparation Success Ratio, inter eNB X2 based for QCI1
- LTE_5877a E-UTRAN HO Preparations, inter eNB X2 based for QCI1
- LTE_5878a E-UTRAN HO Preparation Success Ratio, inter eNB S1 based for QCI1
- LTE_5879a E-UTRAN HO Preparations, inter eNB S1 based for QCI1
- LTE_5880a E-UTRAN HO Success Ratio, inter eNB X2 based for QCI1
- LTE_5881a E-UTRAN HO Attempts, inter eNB X2 based for QCI1
- LTE_5882a E-UTRAN HO Success Ratio, inter eNB S1 based for QCI1
- LTE_5883a E-UTRAN HO Attempts, inter eNB S1 based for QCI1
- LTE_5884a E-UTRAN Inter-Frequency HO Success Ratio for QCI1
- LTE_5885a E-UTRAN Inter-Frequency HO Attempts for QCI1
- LTE_5886a E-UTRAN Intra-Frequency HO Success Ratio for QCI1

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
KPIs • Retainability
- LTE_5572c E-UTRAN E-RAB QCI1 Drop Ratio, RAN View
- LTE_5571d E-RAB QCI1 active drop ratio with data in the buffer due to RNL Radio
- LTE_5570e E-RAB active drop ratio with data in the buffer due to RNL Radio Connection with UE Lost.
- LTE_5582b E-UTRAN QCI1 E-RAB Retainability Rate, RAN View, RNL Failure with UE Lost
- LTE_5581b E-UTRAN E-RAB Retainability Rate, RAN View, RNL Failure with UE Lost
- LTE_5209c E-UTRAN E-RAB QCI1 Normal Release Ratio User Perspective
- LTE_5196a : E-UTRAN inter RAT PS-HO to WCDMA Attempts
• Usage
- LTE_5805c E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI1 DL
- LTE_5807c E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for QCI1 DRBs UL
- LTE_5576a E-UTRAN E-RAB Active Time QCI1 [min]
- LTE_5294c E-UTRAN average PDCP Active Layer Cell Throughput UL for QCI1 DRBs
- LTE_5293c E-UTRAN average PDCP Layer Active Cell Throughput DL for QCI1 DRBs
- LTE_5350a E-UTRAN Averaged IP scheduled Throughput in DL, QCI1
- LTE_5359a E-UTRAN Averaged IP scheduled Throughput in UL, QCI1
- LTE_5256b E-UTRAN PDCP SDU Discard Ratio in DL, QCI1
- LTE_5260b E-UTRAN PDCP SDU Discard Ratio in DL, non GBR
- LTE_5512a E-UTRAN Averaged IP Throughput in UL, QCI1
- LTE_5503a E-UTRAN Averaged IP Throughput in DL, QCI1
- LTE_5847a E-UTRAN Averaged IP scheduled Throughput in DL, QCI1, PLMN
- LTE_5856a E-UTRAN Averaged IP scheduled Throughput in UL, QCI1, PLMN

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EPS bearers for conversational voice
KPIs
• Usage cont…
- LTE_5610a E-UTRAN Maximum Number of Simultaneous QCI1 E-RABs
- LTE_5394a E-UTRAN Average Number of Simultaneous QCI1 E-RABs

• Integrity
- LTE_5305b E-UTRAN PDCP SDU Loss Ratio in the DL, QCI1
- LTE_5471a E-UTRAN Average PDCP SDU Delay in DL, QCI1
- LTE_5256b E-UTRAN PDCP SDU Discard Ratio in DL, QCI1
- LTE_5311b E-UTRAN PDCP SDU Loss Ratio in the UL, QCI1

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Index

• Support for multiple bearers


• EPS bearers for conversational voice (RL50)
• QCI 1 Scheduling
• IMS emergency call handling (RL30/45TD)

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QCI 1 Scheduling- Multiple bearers
• LTE10 – EPS bearers for conversational voice
Step 1
Allocate resources to signaling
bearers of the UE

Step 2
Allocate resources to GBR bearers of
the UE

Step 3
Allocate remaining resources to Non-
GBR bearers of the UE according to
scheduling weights

Step 4
Allocate remaining resources to GBR
bearers with data in buffer

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QCI 1 Scheduling- Modification in Scheduler

•Delay is crucial for VoIP therefore delay target must be controlled by the
Scheduler
– it is done by special delay term DT(t) added to criterion calculation in time domain
scheduling (step in which list of UEs which will be scheduled is created)

C (t )  PF (t ) * DT (t ) PF(t) – proportional fair term


DT(t) – delay term

•Delay Term is based on VoIP packet delay i.e. the longer packet stays in the
buffer the higher DT(t) value is → example on the next slide
– value of Delay Term depends on packet aggregation mechanism
(LNCEL:ulsMaxPacketAgg) and delay target settings (LNBTS:qciTab1:delayTarget)
– it may also have different values in Uplink and Downlink → details on next slides

• Additionally, handling of VoIP UEs by the Scheduler also depends on the RL release and
activated features → see next slide

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Impact on UL Scheduler

Delay weighting curve determine the weight in a function of time:

priorityi: index of the considered UE


j: index of the QCI=1 data radio bearer weight time
Aggregation
size specific = (SystemAggSize – 1) x
offset 20ms
Wdelaymax

C Wmax

A Wmin
Packet
arrival

Time after HoL packet


reception [ms]
HoL packet offsetAggSize
arrival twmin twmax delayTarget

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Index

• Support for multiple bearers


• EPS bearers for conversational voice (RL50)
• QCI 1 Scheduling
• Packet aggregation
• IMS emergency call handling (RL30/45TD)

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Packet Aggregation in UL

• In order to avoid too much signaling in a highly loaded cell*, it is possible to aggregate VoIP packets
into larger Transport Block and send them all at once
– example below shows the packet aggregation mechanism for 3 VoIP packets

2. Without aggregation 3. UE stays in DRX Active state from


packet should be send here sending SR till UL transmission → with 5. TB in this UL Transmission
but Scheduler doesn’t Packet Aggravation this period might be contains 3 VoIP packets.
provide UL Grant longer as transmission is delayed
DRX Active Time

UL Transm.
UL Transm.

UL Transm.
Scheduling

UL Grant

UL Grant

UL Grant
Request

SR

SR
20ms 20ms

4. In this example 3 packets are


1. With Packet Aggregation these packets are
aggregated. Once the SR is send after
delayed. They will be send when proper
3rd packet arrival, UL Grant is
aggregation level is achieved
provided.

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Packet Aggregation in UL
• In order to avoid too much signaling in a highly loaded cell, it is possible to aggregate VoIP packets
into larger Transport Block and send them all at once
– there is no free choice of aggregating the packets. The maximum order is calculated by MAC layer
based on*:
- ulsMaxPacketAgg - maximum number of aggregated VoIP packets in UL (by default set to 2,
value 1 means no packet aggregation)
- delayTarget (part of the QCI1 Tab structure) - time when HoL** packet should leave the buffer

  delayTarge t  40ms  
rrmMaxAggSize  min  ulsMaxPack etAgg ,    1
  20ms  

– to achieve packet aggregation level defined by ulsMaxPacketAgg, minimum values of delayTarget


are as follow:
Packet Aggregation Min. target delay
Level
ulsMaxPacketAgg = 2 60ms
ulsMaxPacketAgg = 3 80ms
ulsMaxPacketAgg = 4 100ms

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Packet Aggregation in DL

•Aggregation of VoIP packets into larger


Transport Block is also possible in DL
transmission

• Basically the aggregation mechanism is


the same as in UL, however some
differences are present
– DL packet aggregation can be switched
on/off using dedicated parameter,
namely actDlsVoicePacketAgg → by
default set to ‘true’
– contrary to UL Packet Aggregation
maximum number of aggregated
packets cannot be configured by the
parameter (as with ulsMaxPacketAgg in
UL)
number of packets to be aggregated
is
controlled by OLDTC (Outer Loop
Target Delay
Control) mechanism
with OLDTC aggregation level is
matched to
channel conditions (#HARQ
ReTx, propagation
delays)
→ more details regarding this
mechanism on the
next pages

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Packet Delay control in UL
delayTarget= 80ms
100

80

Delay Term
60

50
40

20
Packet
arrival

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
packet delay [ms]
DT value before the ramp-up =
0.01
•In Uplink delay weight is based on experienced packet delay
– configured delayTarget determines maximum packet aggregation level
– depending on chosen aggregation level corresponding curve is picked to determine DT(t)
•Example evaluation of DT(t) in UL:
– Configuration:
delayTarget= 80ms
ulsMaxPacketAgg= 3
– Assumptions:
HoL packet waits in the buffer for 60ms
chosen aggregation level is 3 which
means that green curve is picked
cell is highly loaded with GBR traffic
– Outcome:
according to delay curve DT(t)= 50
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Packet Delay control in DL
delayTarget= 80ms
100

80

Delay Term
70
60

40

20
Packet
arrival

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10

remaining delay budget [ms]

For this time if Packet


Aggregation is enabled
scheduling priority is 0.01
•Example evaluation of DT(t) in DL:
– Configuration:
delayTarget= 80ms
actDlsVoicePacketAgg= true
– Assumptions:
HoL packet waits in the buffer for 50ms
→ remaining delay budget = 30 ms
2 VoIP packets are aggregated
– Outcome:
according to delay curve DT(t)= 70
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OLDTC – additional mechanism to control packet delay in DL

100 Relatively fair channel


conditions,
aggregation increased
80

Delay Term
Poor channel
conditions, 60

no
aggregation 40

Good channel conditions,


more packets aggregated
20

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10
remaining delay budget
[ms]

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OLDTC – additional mechanism to control packet delay in DL

• OLDTC offset is one more component in calculating delay-based priority

DT (t )  f ( packetDela y )  round (d OLDTC ,i , j (t ))

• Behavior of the mechanism is controlled by dlsOldtcTarget parameter which defines


percentage of packets that needs to be transferred within configured delayTarget
– default value (0.98) means that OLDTC aims to send 98% of packets within delay target
– dlsOldtcTarget is also used to calculate the offset value that is added after each transmission

100

If packet is sent within


80

Delay Term
delayTarget then OLDTC
When packet is send after
delayTarget then OLDTC offset is is reduced by Δdown
60
increased by Δup= 0.05
dlsOldtcT arg et
40  down    up
1  dlsOldtcT arg et
0.05 0.001 20
Δdown = 0.001 for
dlsOldtcTarget= 0.98
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10
remaining delay budget
[ms]

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Index

• Support for multiple bearers


• EPS bearers for conversational voice (RL50)
• QCI 1 Scheduling
• Packet Aggregation
• IMS emergency call handling (RL30/45TD)

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IMS emergency sessions

There are two variants of emergency session establishment:

UE camps on a cell in normal service state (e.g. Home PLMN of UE supported by cell).
Example use case:
• User switches on his UE and enters correct PIN. UE attaches automatically to
normal APN. When UE is ready, user enters 112 to start emergency call.

UE camps on a cell in limited service state (e.g. no valid PIN available or cell belongs to a
different operator without any roaming agreement).
Example use cases:
• User switches on his UE and enters for example 112 as PIN (possible for some types
of UEs), or
• UE offers only emergency calls to user because UE is out of coverage of its
operator. User dials the emergency number such as 112.
Then UE attaches automatically to emergency APN.

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EPS bearer establishment – UE in limited service state
Example use case: user switches on his UE and instead of PIN user dials 112 (international GSM emergency number) to
start an emergency call.

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EPS bearer establishment – UE in normal service state
Example use case: user has already switched on his UE, attached to the network and UE was idle. User dials 112
(international GSM emergency number) to start an emergency call.

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EPS bearer establishment – E-RAB Setup
Example use case: user has already switched on his UE and UE was active. User dials 112 to start an emergency
call.
Prerequisite: UE is in RRC_CONNECTED and EMM_REGISTERED (attached) state

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IMS emergency sessions– Configuration
addEmergencySessions values are bandwidth-dependent
addEmergencySessions
Bandwith [MHz]
allowed recommended
5 0-480 50
10 0-480 70
15 0-840 70
20 0-840 90

• In order to give a margin on the handover thresholds the value addEmergencySessions should be higher than:
max(addNumUeRadioReasonHo, addNumUeTimeCriticalHo, addNumDrbRadioReasonHo, addNumDrbTimeCriticalHo,
addNumQci1DrbRadioReasonHo, addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo)

•The second parameter is actIMSEmerSessR9 used for enabling/disabling the feature. If the feature is disabled the
emergency calls can still be performed, but they will not be prioritized over the other calls and no additional RAC
thresholds will be added

Area Modifiable
Parameter name Values Description
affected by
Margin for number of active UEs, DRBs and
Range: 0-840, step 1
addEmergencySessions Operator Cell QCI1-DRBs when IMS emergency sessions
default: 70
activated
range: {true, false} Parameter activates the support IMS
actIMSEmerSessR9 Operator Cell
default: false Emergency sessions for Release 9 UEs.

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IMS emergency sessions
KPIs • LTE_5111a E-UTRAN CS Fallback Attempts with redirection via RRC Connection Release Distribution
Rate, emergency call
• LTE_5155a E-UTRAN HO Preparation Success Ratio for IMS emergency Sessions
• LTE_5158a E-UTRAN HO Attempts for IMS emergency Sessions
• LTE_5161a E-UTRAN HO Success Ratio for IMS emergency Sessions,
• LTE_5164a E-UTRAN Total HO Success Ratio for IMS emergency Sessions
• LTE_5201a E-UTRAN Additional E-RAB Setup Attempts for IMS Emergency Sessions
• LTE_5202a E-UTRAN Additional E-RAB Setup Success Ratio for IMS Emergency Sessions
• LTE_5203a E-UTRAN Additional E-RAB Setup Failures for IMS Emergency Sessions
• LTE_5227c E-UTRAN RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio for emergency Calls
• LTE_5228c RRC Connection Setup Attempts emergency calls
• LTE_5392c Total E-UTRAN RRC Connection Setup Rejection Ratio for emergency calls.

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Exercise
Wireshark

• Open the following file using Wireshark:


Module 3 Release 10 UE CapabilitesInformation.pcap
Investigate the UE capability

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Module Review

This module:
• Discussed Support for multiple bearers
• Described EPS bearers for conversational voice
• Described QCI packet scheduling and packet aggregation
• Stated the procedures for IMS emergency call handling

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RA47073EN160GLA1 © Nokia 2016