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# Electricity & Magnetism

Lecture 18

## Matt Champlin/Moment Open/Getty Images

Today’s Concepts:
- Maxwell’s Equations
- Electromagnetic Waves
- Electromagnetic Spectrum
- Photons
Presentation Created by Dr. Adam Lark
Figure 22-5, Page 913

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Maxwell’s Equations 1 and 2
From Gauss’s Law
Maxwell 1 Maxwell 2
qenclosed
FE = FB = 0
e0
Maxwell’s Equations 1 and 2
From Gauss’s Law
Maxwell 1 Maxwell 2
(for light)

FE = 0 FB = 0

## All flux lines that go in, must go out.

Electric field starts from positive charge and ends
on the negative charge, so that electric field
(line) is not a loop.

## Magnetic field (line) is a loop starting from a

point and ending at the same point

## From these two equation, we can predict the

transverse wave form of the electromagnetic
wave.
DF B
SEDℓ = -
Dt
Figure 22-7, Page 916

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Unnumbered Art, Page 917

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Unnumbered Art, Page 918

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Maxwell’s Equations 1
You are looking down along the axis of a cylindrical volume
of space. Within this volume is a uniform magnetic field 𝑩
that is parallel to this axis. The four points a, b, c, and d all
lie in the same plane within this volume and are all the
same distance from the axis. If the magnetic field is coming
out of the page and is increasing, which diagram best
represents the electric field at each of the points?

A. B.
E.
DF B
C. D. SEDℓ = -
Dt
−ΔΦ𝐵 pointed into page
Maxwell’s Equations 2
You are looking down along the axis of a cylindrical volume
of space. Within this volume is a uniform magnetic field 𝑩
that is parallel to this axis. The four points a, b, c, and d all
lie in the same plane within this volume and are all the
same distance from the axis. If the magnetic field is coming
out of the page and is decreasing, which diagram best
represents the electric field at each of the points?

A. B.
E.
DF B
C. D. SEDℓ = -
Dt
−ΔΦ𝐵 pointed out of page
Maxwell’s Equations 3
You are looking down along the axis of a cylindrical volume
of space. Within this volume is a uniform magnetic field 𝑩
that is parallel to this axis. The four points a, b, c, and d all
lie in the same plane within this volume and are all the
same distance from the axis. If the magnetic field is pointed
into the page and is increasing, which diagram best
represents the electric field at each of the points?

A. B.
E.
DF B
C. D. SEDℓ = -
Dt
−ΔΦ𝐸 pointed out of page
Maxwell’s Equations 4
You are looking down along the axis of a cylindrical volume
of space. Within this volume is a uniform magnetic field 𝑩
that is parallel to this axis. The four points a, b, c, and d all
lie in the same plane within this volume and are all the
same distance from the axis. If the magnetic field is pointed
into the page and is decreasing, which diagram best
represents the electric field at each of the points?

A. B.
E.
DF B
C. D. SEDℓ = -
Dt
−ΔΦ𝐵 pointed into page
Figure 22-8, Page 919

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Unnumbered Art, Page 920

න 𝐵𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇0 𝐼

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

𝑑𝑞
σ 𝐵D𝑙=𝜇0 𝐼=𝜇0
𝑑𝑡
𝑑ε0 Φ0
= 𝜇0
𝑑𝑡
𝑑ε0
σ 𝐵D𝑙 = 𝜇0 ε0
𝑑𝑡

æ DF E ö
SBDℓ = m0 çithrough + e0 ÷
è Dt ø
Unnumbered Art, Page 921

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Maxwell’s Equations 5
You are looking down along the axis of a cylindrical volume
of space. Within this volume is a uniform electric field 𝑬
that is parallel to this axis. The four points a, b, c, and d all
lie in the same plane within this volume and are all the
same distance from the axis. If the electric field is coming
out of the page and is increasing, which diagram best
represents the electric field at each of the points?

A. B.
E.

 D E 
BD   0  ithrough   0 
C. D.  Dt 
ΔΦ𝐸 pointed out of page
Maxwell’s Equations 6
You are looking down along the axis of a cylindrical volume
of space. Within this volume is a uniform electric field 𝑬
that is parallel to this axis. The four points a, b, c, and d all
lie in the same plane within this volume and are all the
same distance from the axis. If the electric field is coming
out of the page and is decreasing, which diagram best
represents the electric field at each of the points?

A. B.
E.

 D E 
BD   0  ithrough   0 
C. D.  Dt 
ΔΦ𝐸 pointed into page
Maxwell’s Equations 7
You are looking down along the axis of a cylindrical volume
of space. Within this volume is a uniform electric field 𝑬
that is parallel to this axis. The four points a, b, c, and d all
lie in the same plane within this volume and are all the
same distance from the axis. If the electric field is pointed
into the page and is increasing, which diagram best
represents the electric field at each of the points?

A. B.
E.

 D E 
BD   0  ithrough   0 
C. D.  Dt 
ΔΦ𝐸 pointed into page
Maxwell’s Equations 8
You are looking down along the axis of a cylindrical volume
of space. Within this volume is a uniform electric field 𝑬
that is parallel to this axis. The four points a, b, c, and d all
lie in the same plane within this volume and are all the
same distance from the axis. If the electric field is pointed
into the page and is decreasing, which diagram best
represents the electric field at each of the points?

A. B.
E.

 D E 
BD   0  ithrough   0 
C. D.  Dt 
ΔΦ𝐸 pointed out of page
Maxwell’s Equations 3 and 4

Maxwell 3 Maxwell 4
DF B
SEDℓ = - æ
SBDℓ = m0 çithrough + e0
DF E ö
÷
Dt è Dt ø

## Changing Magnetic Flux Changing Electric Flux

causes an Electric Field causes a Magnetic Field

## Creates self-propagating transverse wave

Summary
Maxwell’s Equations:
qenclosed
1. F E = 2. FB = 0
e0 Flux through a closed surface

DF B æ DF E ö
3. SEDℓ = - 4. SBDℓ = m0 çithrough + e0
è Dt ø
÷
Dt Changing flux producer alternate field

Photons: c= fl 𝐸 = ℎ𝑓
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Figure 22-9, Page 922

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Unnumbered Art, Page 911

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Maxwell’s Equations 1 and 2
From Gauss’s Law
Maxwell 1 Maxwell 2
(for light)

FE = 0 FB = 0

## All flux lines that go in, must go out.

Figure 22-6, Page 915

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Electromagnetic Waves
Synchronized oscillations of
electric fields and magnetic fields
produce electromagnetic waves.

E0 = cB0

Ey (x, t) = E0 cos ( kx - wt + f )

Bz (x, t) = B0 cos ( kx - wt + f )
The Speed of Light

1
𝑐=
𝜇0 𝜀0

## Permittivity of free space (constant): 𝜀0

𝜀0 = 8.854 ∗ 10−12 𝐹/𝑚

## Permeability of free space (constant): 𝜇0

𝜇0 = 1.257 ∗ 10−6 𝐻/𝑚

## 𝑐 = 3.00 ∗ 108 𝑚/𝑠

Electromagnetic Spectrum
There are many different kinds of electromagnetic waves!

c= fl
Low Frequency High Frequency
Long Wavelength Short Wavelength

## Visible light is only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Long Wavelength Light
There are many different kinds of electromagnetic waves!
Low Frequency
Long Wavelength
Infrared light: Hot objects

## Microwaves: Contains resonant

frequency of H20 molecule. Used in
microwave oven!

for cell phones, internet, television,
Short Wavelength Light
There are many different kinds of electromagnetic waves!
High Frequency
Short Wavelength
Ultraviolet light: Can Ionize
atom, causing the photoelectric
effect and sunburn.

## X ray: Can pass through many

substances, giving ways to see
innards of humans and animals!

## Gamma rays: Highest

energy photons. Can be used in
cancer therapy and PET scans.
Figure 22-12, Page 927

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Energy and Intensity of light

## Energy Density Intensity

B0
2
cB
2
uaverage = e0 E0 =
2
saverage = ce0 E =
2 0
m0 m0
0

OR OR
1 B 2
1 cB 2
uaverage = e0 Erms
2
= rms saverage = ce0 Erms
2
= rms
2 2m 0 2 2m0
Photons

## The energy of an electromagnetic wave comes in packets:

Photon
v = c (speed of light)
Planck’s Constant
Energy of a photon: ℎ = 6.626 ∗ 10−34 J ∗ 𝑠

𝐸 = ℎ𝑓
𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦
Electromagnetic Waves 1
An electromagnetic wave in vacuum has
wavelength 1.00 m. If you increase the
wavelength to 2.00 m, the frequency of the wave
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. stays the same.

c= fl
Electromagnetic Waves 2
An electromagnetic wave in vacuum has
wavelength 1.00 m. If you increase the
wavelength to 2.00 m, the angular wave number
of the wave
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. stays the same.
2𝜋
𝑘=
𝜆
Electromagnetic Waves 3
An electromagnetic wave in vacuum has
wavelength 1.00 m. If you increase the
wavelength to 2.00 m, the speed of the wave in
vacuum
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. stays the same.

## Speed of light in the same medium stays the same!

Electromagnetic Waves 4
An electromagnetic wave in vacuum has
frequency 1.00  106 Hz. If you increase the
frequency to 2.00  106 Hz, the wavelength of
the wave
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. stays the same.

c= fl
Electromagnetic Waves 5
An electromagnetic wave in vacuum has
frequency 1.00  106 Hz. If you increase the
frequency to 2.00  106 Hz, the angular wave
number of the wave
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. stays the same.
2𝜋
𝑘=
𝜆
Electromagnetic Waves 6
An electromagnetic wave in vacuum has
frequency 1.00  106 Hz. If you increase the
frequency to 2.00  106 Hz, the speed of the wave
in vacuum
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. stays the same.

## Speed of light in the same medium stays the same!

Electromagnetic Waves 7
Which of the following electromagnetic waves in
vacuum has the longest wavelength?
A. a wave with wavelength 1.00 m
B. a wave with frequency 1.50  108 Hz
C. a wave with angular wave number 3.00 m–1
D. a wave with angular frequency 8.00  108 rad/s
Electromagnetic Waves 7
Which of the following electromagnetic waves in
vacuum has the longest wavelength?
A. a wave with wavelength 1.00 m 𝜆 =1m
B. a wave with frequency 1.50  108 Hz

## 𝑐 = 𝑓𝜆 3 × 108 = 1.5 × 108 𝜆 𝜆 =2m

C. a wave with angular wave number 3.00 m–1
2𝜋 2𝜋
𝑘= 3= 𝜆 = 2.09 m
𝜆 𝜆
D. a wave with angular frequency 8.00  108 rad/s
𝜔 𝜔 8 × 108
𝑓= so… 𝑐 = 𝜆 3 × 108 = 𝜆 𝜆 = 2.35 m
2𝜋 2𝜋 2𝜋
Electromagnetic Waves
Which of the following photons has the greatest energy?

## A. a photon with wavelength 600 nm = 6.00  10–7 m

B. a photon with wavelength 300 nm = 3.00  10–7 m
C. a photon with frequency 6.00  1014 Hz
D. a photon with frequency 3.00  1014 Hz
Electromagnetic Waves
Which of the following photons has the greatest energy?
A. a photon with wavelength 600 nm = 6.00  10–7 m
ℎ𝑐 6.6 × 10−34 × 3 × 108
𝐸= =
6 × 10−7
= 3.3 × 10 −19 J
𝜆
B. a photon with wavelength 300 nm = 3.00  10–7 m
ℎ𝜆 6.6 × 10−34 × 3 × 108
𝐸= =
3 × 10−7
= 6.6 × 10 −19 J
𝑐
C. a photon with frequency 6.00  1014 Hz

## 𝐸 = ℎ𝑓 = 6.6 × 10−34 × 3 × 1014 = 1.98 × 10−19 J

Problem Solving
Photon of wavelength 646 nm is absorbed by an atom
and re-emitted. During this process, the photon loses 1
electron volt of energy (1 eV = 1.602 * 10-19 J). What is
the wavelength of the newly emitted photon?

atom

𝜆0 = 646𝑛𝑚 𝜆𝑓 =?
Δ𝐸 = 1 𝑒𝑉

## Diagram ✔ Label all quantities ✔

Looking for Connections

atom

𝜆0 = 646 nm 𝜆𝑓 =?
Δ𝐸 = 1 eV

Speed of light
Energy of a photon
𝑐
𝐸 = ℎ𝑓 𝑓=
𝜆
𝑐 3.00 ∗ 10 8
𝐸=ℎ = 6.626 ∗ 10−34 ∗
646 ∗ 10−9
= 3.077 * 10 -19 J
𝜆
Change in Energy

atom

𝜆0 = 646 nm 𝜆𝑓 =?
Δ𝐸 = 1 eV
E0 = 3.077 * 10-19J Ef = ?

Δ𝐸 = 𝑬𝒇 − 𝑬𝟎

## Ef = 3.077 * 10-19 - 1.606 * 10-19

Ef = 1.475 * 10-19 J
Making Connections

atom

𝜆0 = 646 nm 𝜆𝑓 =?
Δ𝐸 = 1 eV
E0 = 3.077 * 10-19J Ef = 1.475 * 10-19 J

𝑐 Algebra
𝑐
𝐸=ℎ 𝜆=ℎ
𝜆 𝐸
8
3.00 ∗ 10
𝜆 = 6.626 ∗ 10−34 = 1347 nm
1.475 ∗ 10−19
Reflect
Photon of wavelength 646 nm is absorbed by an atom
and re-emitted. During this process, the photon loses 1
electron volt of energy (1 eV = 1.602 * 10-19 J). What is
the wavelength of the newly emitted photon?

λ = 1350
1347 nm 4 sig figs
3 sig figs

3 sig figs!
Sig Figs?

## Do the units make sense? ✔

Reflect
Does this number make sense? ✔
λ = 1350 nm
How did you lose energy and gain wavelength?
Lower Energy
Low Frequency = Longer Wavelength High Frequency
Low Energy High Energy
Long Wavelength Short Wavelength
Figure 22-10, Page 924

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Figure 22-11, Page 925

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Figure 22-2, Page 909

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Figure 22-3, Page 909

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Unnumbered Art, Page 930

## Freedman/Ruskell/Kesten/Tauck, College Physics, 2e © 2018 W. H. Freeman and Company

Figure 22-13, Page 936