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Summary Slide

 Tutorial 1

Safety Culture & Safety Management

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Tutorial 1

Safety Culture & Safety Management

SK Poon

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Tutorial

 Purpose of the tutorial


 The assignment
 How to tackle the Problems
 Action Strategies
 Critical issues
 Improvement opportunities
 Reflection

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Assignment No. 1

How significant is safety culture to the effective implementation of


safety management?

In attempting the assessment task, you should consider the


following:

1. In your opinion, how easy is it to establish a positive safety


culture in an organization which has ineffective, mediocre
or a negative safety culture?
2. In your opinion, how can a poor safety culture be changed,
or how can an effective, proactive safety culture be
improved?
3. From the readings, the modules you have consulted and
your own experience, which are the safety management
tools and practices that can introduce effective safety
culture, or change a negative safety culture?
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Safety Culture – an overview

 Definition of “Safety Culture”?


 Why “Safety Culture”?
 Historical path from safety engineering to
culture change (Simon & Leik)
 Stages of safety culture (Barrachough & Carnino.
1998)

 Management role & actions (Barrachough &


Carnino. 1998)

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Definition of TSM

 How about if you don’t know the answer?


Tips:
 Refer to the course materials provided
 Brain-storming through group discussion
 Ask an expert
 Conduct an intensive library/internet search using the
right keywords and searching techniques
 Summarize the findings and make sense of the
meaning
 Put it in your own words
 Put the new ideas into practice
 Review the results (reflection)
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Pre-tutorial Readings

 Read Reading 3 - Goetsch, D.L. 1998, 'Establish a


TSM culture', in Implementing Total Safety
Management: Safety, Health, and Competitiveness in
the Global Marketplace, Prentice Hall, pp 215-231,
and
 Reading 10 - Simon, R.A. & S.I. 1996, 'Improving
safety performance through cultural interventions', in
Essentials of Safety and Health Management, ed.
R.W. Lack, CRC Press Inc. U.S.A., pp. 521-534, and
consider the questions set out in Assignment No. 1.

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80-90% of all industrial accidents are
attributable to 'human factors'

"Investigations into major disasters such as Piper Alpha,


Zeebrugee, Flixborough, Chapham Junction, and
Chernobyl have revealed that complex systems broke
down disastrously, despite the adoption of the full range of
engineering and technical safeguards, because people
failed to do what they were supposed to do. These were
not simple, individual errors, but malpractices that
corrupted large parts of the social system that makes
organizations function. ... Safety experts now estimate
that 80-90% of all industrial accidents are attributable to
'human factors'. It is now widely accepted that the most
effective way to reduce accident rates is to address the
social and organizational factors.“
-- Mark Fleming and Ronny Lardner
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Definition of TSM Culture

 A TSM culture is the everyday


manifestation of a deeply ingrained set of
values that makes continually improving the
work environment one of the organization’s
highest priorities. It shows up in
procedures, expectations (performance),
habits and traditions that promote safety,
health, and competitiveness. (Page 40)

Goetsch, D.L. 1998, 'Establish a TSM culture', in Implementing


Total Safety Management: Safety, Health, and Competitiveness in
9 the Global Marketplace
Establish a TSM Culture

 TSM cultural characteristics (P217)


 Identifying and removing organizational
roadblocks (P218)
 Turn key people into advocate
 Gaining a commitment to safety (P51)

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Historical path from safety
engineering to culture change

CC
E3
E3 BB
E1
E1 E2 E1 E2

(E1) (E2) (CC)


Engineering Education E3 BB Culture
E1 E2 Change
E1 E2
(E2) (BB)
Enforcement Behaviour-based
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Advice from Behaviorists
E. Scott Geller. . . “The Psychology of Safety”

“The intent must not be to control people,


but to help them control their own behavior
for the safety of themselves and others. This
is why the terms such as behavior
modification, discipline and enforcement
are inappropriate. They carry the
connotation of outside control. The bottom
line is that behavior is motivated by
consequences that are obvious and
immediate”

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Behavior-Based Safety vs
Hierarchy of Control of Hazards

Behavior-Based Safety
1. The belief that worker behavior is the precursor to safety
or injury
2. Implementation must be achieved through training (lots!)
3. High participation is critical for success
4. Management commitment to the process is essential
5. Behavior is objective and can be observed
6. Unsafe or at-risk behavior can be objectively measured
7. Improving safe behavior and minimizing at-risk
behaviors reduces injuries

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Hierarchy of Health & Safety Controls

1. Elimination or substitution
2. Engineering controls
3. Warnings
4. Training and Procedures/Administrative
controls
5. Personal Protective Equipment

National Safety Council & UAW Paper on “A Union Critique of


Behavior Safety

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Employees Complaints about Behavior-Based safety

 Ignores hierarchy of risk controls


 Not a risk management approach
 Puts responsibility of worker
 Creates climate of fear
 Rules based approach only
 Takes employer and regulator off the hook
 Research based on false and questionable
logic

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Health & Safety Process Model

Identification Evaluation Control

Data Analysis
Risk Assessment Select Controls based
Claims assessment
on Hierarchy
Hazard Analysis
Surveys & Questionnaires
Interviews
Worker Complaints
Government Regulations
Inspections/Audits
UAW Safety Model
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Assignment 1 (a)

 How easy is it to establish a positive safety


culture in an organization which has
ineffective, mediocre or a negative safety
culture?
 Hints:
 Find out from p. 32, 33 and 217 and the article of
Barraclough & Carnino about the characteristics of a
positive safety culture.
 Based on the findings, comments on the how difficult is
it to achieve the performance characterized by those
features of a positive safety culture.

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Assignment 1 (b)

 In your opinion, how can a poor safety


culture be changed, or how can an effective,
proactive safety culture be improved?
 Hints:
 Read Page 33-35
 Understand the “Culture Iceberg” concept illustrated on
Page 34.
 Use GOOGLE to conduct a search on “Cultural
Change” and “Management of Change”
 Summarize what Action Strategies could be adopted.
 Comments on their limitations and implications

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Actionable Model

Theories of Actions
Chris Argris & Donald Schön

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Assignment 1 (c)

 Which are the safety management tools and


practices that can introduce effective safety
culture, or change a negative safety culture?
 Hints
 Understand the safety management concepts
 Make reference to the “TOOLKITS” Webpage at URL:
http://www.ic.polyu.edu.hk/safety/toolkits/index.htm
 Search and select SM tools and good practices that can
be put into practice

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What Characterizes a Good Safety
Management System?

 Discuss in groups
 Summarize and present the results of
discussion by a group representative

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Case Study

An integrated SMS of an airport


(http://icnet.polyu.edu.hk/d3/airport/final%20report/final-
report-presentation.ppt)

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Integrated Performance-based
The External •Stakeholders
Environment •Regulating Agencies/units Safety Management System

Continuous Improvement
Integration
Safety Management Review

Safety Management System


Safety Management Structure Evaluation of Performance
Initiation Communication
(OSH inputs) Audit / Review

Corporate Safety Management


[reference Recommendation No. 3(b)]
Management Commitment and Resources
OSH Process
Safety Policy, Goals & Objectives Formulation

Safety Section OSH Policy


OSH Advisor Goals & Objectives
Overall Planning and Performance Monitoring Performance Standards
Overall Safety Planning
•Meeting OSH Goals & Objectives
Manual & Guidelines
[to be prepared by Line Departments]
•Accident & Injury Rates
•Changes in Efficiency
•Overall Safety Performance
Line Departments Implementation / Operations [to be prepared by Line Departments]
Employee Participation
OSH Training
Risk Management Programs
L1 L2 L3 Operational Safety Procedures
Prevent / Correct Actions
Safety Performance
Procurement / Contractors
Emergency preparedness (Outputs)
Contractors Contractors Contractors
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