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Nanhi pari seemant engineering institute

Summer Internship Report


(15/06/19 - 15/07/19)
On

Study of Black Cotton Soil reinforced with Silica


and Polypropylene
Submitted by :

Kamla Tamta
N.P.S.E.I. Pithoragarh
OVERVIEW
◻ INTRODUCTION
◻ ATTERBERG LIMIT
◻ SHRINKAGE LIMIT
◻ LIQUID LIMIT
◻ PLASTIC LIMIT
◻ STANDARD PROCTOR TEST
◻ C.B.R TEST
INTRODUCTION
❏ Expansive soil shows dual swell–shrink which is not suitable for construction.
❏ This report explored the potential mecho-chemical reinforcement of expansive clayey
❏ The polypropylene fiber is randomly distributed in the soil for mechanical stabilization,
and the industrial residual silica fume is used as a chemical stabilizer.
❏ The experimental analysis was made in three phases which involved tests on
mechanically-reinforced expansive soil, using randomly distributed polypropylene fibers
with different percentages.
❏The second phase of experiments was carried out on chemical stabilized expansive
soil with different percentages of silica.
❏ The next phase of the experiment focused on the combination of mecho-chemical
stabilization of the expansive soil with different combinations of silica and
polypropylene fibers.
❏Maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC), liquid limit
(LL), plastic limit (PL), plastic index (PI), grain size, and constant volume swelling
pressure tests were performed on unreinforced and reinforced expansive soil, to
investigate the effects of polypropylene fiber and silica fume on the engineering
properties of expansive clayey soil.
CONSISTENCY LIMIT
❏The consistency of a fine-grained soil is the physical state in which it exists.It is used to
denote degree of firmness of a soil.
❏Consistency of a soil is indicated by such terms as soft, firm or hard.
❏ In 1911, a Swedish agriculture engineer Atterberg mentioned that a fine-grained
States, namely, liquid, plastic, semi-solid or solid state.
❏The water contents at which the state to the other are known as consistency limits or
Atterberg's limits.
ATTERBERG
LIMIT
SHRINKAGE LIMIT TEST
SHRINKAGE LIMIT
Shrinkage limit of soil is a moisture content beyond which decrease in moisture content
does not cause any further decrease in volume of soil. Thus it shows the shrinking property
of soil. Shrinkage limit can be determined from the relatio

S.L = (M1-Ms)-(V1-V2)×pw/Ms

Where M1= initial wet mass,


V1= initial volume
Ms = dry mass of soil
V2 = volume after drying.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
RESULTS
GRAPH
LIQUID LIMIT TEST
LIQUID LIMIT TEST
The liquid limit of a soil is the water content at which the soil behaves practically
like a liquid, but has small shear strength. It flows to close the groove in just 25
blows in Casagrande’s liquid limit device.
APPARATUS
UESD
RESULTS
Soil Sample Liquid Limit
0.25% PP 59.453
0.5%PP 55.718
1%PP 60.282
2% Si + 0.25%PP 59.945
2%Si+0.5%PP 60.857
2%Si+1%PP 60.261
4%Si+0.25%PP 57.834
4%Si+0.5%PP 60.272
4%Si+1%PP 57.370
8%Si+0.25%PP 59.813
8%Si+0.5%PP 57.367
8%Si+1%PP 59.351
PLASTIC LIMIT TEST
PLASTIC LIMIT
Plastic limit is the water content in clay soil below Which it stop to behave like a plastic
material. it starts to crumble when rolled in threads of 3 mm diameter. At this water
content, the soil losses its plasticity.
APPARATUS
UESD
RESULTS
Soil Sample Plastic Limit
0.25% PP 51.1565
0.5%PP 40.4487
1%PP 37.7725
2% Si + 0.25%PP 40.6929
2%Si+0.5%PP 45.7688
2%Si+1%PP 48.4938
4%Si+0.25%PP 36.4457
4%Si+0.5%PP 35.7903
4%Si+1%PP 36.7903
8%Si+0.25%PP 55.8132
8%Si+0.5%PP 48.3784
8%Si+1%PP 37.0143
STANDARD PROCTOR TEST
STANDARD PROCTOR TEST
The Proctor compaction test is a laboratory method of experimentally determining the
optimal moisture content at which a given soil type will become most dense and achieve
its maximum dry density.
APPARATUS
UESD
RESULTS
C.B.R TEST
C.B.R. Test
It is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with standard circular
piston at the rate of 1.25 mm/min. to that required for the corresponding penetration of a
standard material.
C.B.R. = Test load/Standard load × 100
APPARATUS
UESD
SOAKED C.B.R
MOULD
RESULTS
CBR
Load for 2.5mm Load for 5mm
value CBR value
SOIL SAMPLE penetration penetration
for 2mm for 5mm (%)
(KN) (KN)
(%)

Normal Soil 0.38 0.52 2.8 2.5

0.25% PP 0.68 0.74 5 3.6

0.5% PP 0.62 0.67 4.6 3.3

1% PP 0.66 0.76 4.9 3.7

2% Silica 0.43 0.6 3.1 2.9

4% Silica 0.44 0.58 3.2 2.86

8% Silica 0.43 0.61 3.1 3

2% Silica + .25%PP 0.47 0.63 3.54 3.12

2% Silica + .5%PP 0.48 0.61 3.5 3.02

2% Silica + 1%PP 0.48 0.63 3.49 3.1

4% Silica + .25%PP 0.4 0.58 2.9 2.78

4% Silica + .5%PP 0.45 0.57 3.3 2.8

4% Silica + 1%PP 0.46 0.58 3.4 2.84

8% Silica + .25%PP 0.5 0.62 4.1 3.02

8% Silica + .5%PP 0.52 0.63 3.8 3.12


GRAPH