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Apprenticeship and

Dual Training Sub-Systems


RHYSLYN RUFIN- SALINAS
Discussant
APPRENTICE
• A person who works for another in
order to learn knowledge and skills
When was the first time you
apprenticed to someone?
The changing role of vocational education
and training (VET) in a changing world of work
underpinned by the fourth industrial revolution,
obliges the economic unions to face the question
of how to place and manage apprenticeships,
within the education and training system, and in
connection to the labor market.
Stakeholders have done
much to increase the
apprenticeship offer and its
quality following the launch
for apprenticeships, and the
focus on the added value of
work-based learning.
There is a greater need to understand the
relevance and the role of apprenticeships as part of
collective skills formation, to improve their quality in
line with the proposal for establishing a framework for
quality and effective apprenticeships, boost cross-
country mobility of apprentices, and reflect on future
developments of this traditional learning tool in the
context of Industry 4.0.
INDUSTRY 4.0

• Is a term often used to refer to the


developmental process in the
management of manufacturing and
chain production.
Two main distinct purposes and functions
of apprenticeships:
(a) function group A:

Apprenticeship as an education and training system.


Apprenticeship aims at providing people with full
competence and capability in an apprenticeable
occupation or trade.
In this group the apprenticeship system is different
from the school-based VET system.
(b)function group B:
Apprenticeship as a type of VET delivery within the
formal VET system.
Apprenticeship aims at providing a diverse way to
deliver VET to achieve formal VET qualifications by
bringing people into the labour market (mixed education
and employment functions).
In this group, apprenticeship shares the same purpose
and scope as other types of VET delivery and may replace or
complement them in delivering a VET qualification.
(c) function group C:

Apprenticeship as a hybrid system.


Apprenticeship is aimed at offering young people a
way of reaching a qualification by bringing them
onto the labour market (strong link with social
inclusion and employment).
Hybrid function group C combines elements of
groups A and B, but does not fully fall under either of
the two.
• Responsibility sharing, between education and
training and labour market sides, shows a
demarcation in approaches, where sector
representatives and companies have responsibility
for implementation of the in-company training (most
common among function group A) and where the
schools are responsible also for the in-company
training (most common among function group B).
Dual Training Sub-Systems
WELCOME
16

to

DTS (Dual Training System)


PARTNERSHIP
Project Goal: Enterprise-based Training

Highly-skilled Filipino workforce sufficient


to meet the needs of the economy

Tech-Voc.
Private NGO’s, PO’s LGU’s Schools &
Enterprise
training centers

PARTNERSHIP

DTS Act of 1994


(Republic Act no. 7686)
INDUSTRY-ACADEME
INVOLVEMENT IN TRAINING

Designing a Curriculum
Customized Trainor’s Training
Training Plan making
Staff Immersion
Curriculum Review
Global Evaluation of the Program after training
Public Employment Service Office Affairs
Employment Facilitation Activities
 Invite local partners (Campus recruitment)
 Conduct local and overseas job fair
 Phil. Job Net

Labor Market Information


 Curriculum Review: Addressing the skills mismatch for local
employment
 Company Visits

Career Guidance and Counseling


 Conduct career orientation to both public and private high
schools in coordination with DepEd.
 Conduct career orientation to various LGU’s, NGO’s, and PO’s.
PESO Affairs
Action Items: Urgent Tasks for Collaboration among DOLE,PESOPHIL and private
industry presented by: Atty. Jalilo O. Dela Torre, OIC, Bureau of Local Employment
during National Convention held in Ilo-ilo City (2007)

1. Career Advocacy Program – Career Information, Guidance and


Counseling Training Interventions:
2. Broadening Access to Labor Market Information to the Youth;
3. Addressing Human Resource Challenges of Priority Growth
Economic Sectors, especially BPO
4. Addressing Skills Mismatch through Industry-Academe-
Government Collaboration for Curricular Reform
5. Extending Corporate Social Responsibility of BPO into the
Addressing Vulnerabilities of Disadvantaged Sectors
What do our graduates do?
Types of Companies
Where are they working?
DTS Partners
1997 – 2008 : 155 Companies

: 28 Companies TESDA Accredited

SY 2007 – 2008 : 34 Companies

SY 2008 – 2009 : 32 Companies


THE FUTURE
• DUAL TRAINING CAN SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGE THE GENERALLY
LOW REGARD GIVEN TO THE MID-LEVEL WORKER.

• OUR INDUSTRIAL AND MANUAL WORKERS ARE IMPORTANT TO


OUR ECONOMY.

”LET ME SAY THAT BECOMING A MID-LEVEL WORKER THROUGH DUAL TRAINING IS ONE OF
THE BEST WAYS FOR A PERSON TO ACQUIRE A TRULY RELEVANT EDUCATION.”
Pres. Fidel V. Ramos
The Impacts of On-the-Job Training on
Employment and Earnings:
Dual Training System in the Philippines

Futoshi Yamauchi (Development Research Group, World Bank)


Taejong Kim (KDI School of Public Policy and Management)
Kye Woo Lee (KDI School of Public Policy and Management)
Marites Tiongco (De La Salle University, the Philippines)

October 4 2016
Motivation
 Seek practical ways to upgrade worker productivity through
skills training.
 On-the-job training (OJT) through collaborations between
training institutions and employers has the potential to meet
industry demands and thus to deliver better labor market
outcomes.
TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority) in the
Philippines

 Established in 1994 (by the Republic Act No. 7796), mandated to manage and
supervise technical education and skills development
 Primarily responsible for formulation and coordinated implementation of technical
education and skills development policies, plans, and programs
 Also in charge of competency assessment of skilled workers, accreditation of training
providers, development of standards and qualifications, provision of equitable access
to quality programs for the growing number of TVET clients
 Also manages 125 TESDA Technology Institutes (TTIs) with about 157,000 enrollees
and 140,000 graduates (2011); and supports TVET institutions (TVIs) in general
through trainer’s development program, curriculum and materials development,
career guidance and placement, and scholarship programs
Dual Training System in the Philippines

 TESDA defines the DTS as “institutional mode for technology-based


education and training in which learning takes alternatively in two places,
the school or the training center and the company”
 TVIs save training costs; employers save on screening and hiring costs, and
also benefit from the waiver to pay the trainees 75% of the minimum wage
and deduction of 50% of DTS expenses from taxable income.
 What about the trainees themselves? TESDA envisages that the DTS trainee
beneficiaries enjoy quality training and acquire proper skills, work attitude,
and knowledge leading to better employability after training.
 Yet no systematic evaluation has been carried out to assess the impacts of
the DTS on employment and other labor market outcomes.
TESDA enrollees and graduates by modes of delivery
DTS/DTP graduates performed better in HS

Kernel density estimate Academically better


performing HS
.15

students are
selected into
.1

DTS/DTP
density

.05
0

-10 -5 0 5 10 15
normalized average highschool grade

DTS/DTP
RP
kernel = epanechnikov, bandwidth = 0.9673
Conclusions
 The DTS has a significantly positive impact on labor market earnings, that is, more than
75% increase relative to the regular program graduates.
 OJT component of DTS is an important factor that contributes to higher labor market
earnings among the DTS graduates (i.e., the impact significantly increases with the OJT
intensity, measured by the proportion of in-company training and hours of works per week in
company).
 There is perhaps need for tightening eligibility regulations for employers/industries that
require only low skills and absorb few trainees after DTS/DTP (e.g., highway toll collection).
THANK YOU
and
GOOD DAY!