Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

Khushbu baghel

Biotech 4th year

Typical Surface Water Treatment Plant
Water Treatment Processes
 Screening – Removal of big objects like branches.
 Coagulation and Flocculation – Then, chemicals like alum
and other chemicals are added to the water with a positive
charge. The positive charge of these chemicals neutralizes
the negative charge of dirt and other dissolved particles in
the water. When this occur the particles bind with the
chemicals and form larger particles called floc.
 Sedimentation – Removal of smaller particles. In this, flocs
settles to the bottom of the water supply, due to its weight.
This settling process is called sedimentation.
 Filtration – removal of very small particles. Once the floc
has settled to the bottom of the water supply, the clear
water on top will pass through filters of varying
compositions ( sand, gravel, and charcoal ).
 And pore sizes and remove dissolved
particles such as dust , parasites, bacteria,
viruses, and chemicals.
 Disinfection – removal of pathogens.
 Aeration – removal of taste like odour, and
increases dissolved oxygen.
 Softening – removal of hardness. A water
softener is a device that reduces the
hardness of the water. A water soften
typically uses sodium and potassium ions to
replace calcium and magnesium ions, the
ions that creates the hardness.
Other specific processes are there –
 Fluoridation – Water fluoridation is the treatment of
community water supplies for the purpose of adjusting
the concentration of the free fluoride ion to the
optimum level sufficient to reduce dental caries.
 Fluoride is present in all natural water.
 Beyond certain level , the bones start disintegrating
and causes the decrease called fluorosis
 1 mg/l is desirable.
 1.5 mg/l max.
 Chlorination – Chlorine is used because it is a very effective
disinfectant, and residual can be maintained against
possible biological contamination in the water distribution
 The addition of chlorine to drinking water is called
 Or chlorine can combine with certain naturally occuring
organic compounds in water to produce chloroform.
 Ozone gas – can be used for disinfection of drinking water.
Ozone is unstable, it cannot be stored and must be
produced on-site and that’s why it is more expensive.
 Does not cause taste or odour problems.
 Leaves no residues.
 Ph correction – lime is added to the
filtered water to adjust the ph and
stabilize the naturally soft water in order
to minimize corrosion in the distribution