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NAME – SWECHCHHA KESARWANI

ROLL- NO: 23004

EWING CHRISTIAN COLLEGE


EXPERIMENT-1 𝑠𝑡 FABRY-PEROT
INTERFEROMETER
 INTRODUCTION –
The purpose of using Fabry-Perot Interferometer in this experiment is that we have to
produce interference pattern to observe concentric circular fringes on the distant screen
and also we have to measure the wavelength of the given laser source.

 ABOUT THE EXPERIMENT-


Objects that were performed in the Experiment:
1- Alignment of the Fabry-Perot Interferometer to observe concentric circular fringes.
2- Measurement of wavelength.
 APPARATUS THAT WERE USED IN THE
EXPERIMENT-
 A FABRY-PEROT INTERFEROMETER-

 SODIUM VAPOUR LAMP-

 He-Ne LASER SOURCE-

 OBJECTIVE 10x with Mount-


 APLLICATIONS OF FABRY-PEROT
INTERFEROMETER-
 There are many applications of Fabry-Perot interferometer and some of them
are-

 To evaluate the width of narrow spectral lines :

 To Reveal the hyperfine structure in line spectra:

 To re-determine the length of the standard meter:

 Determination of the wavelength of given light source:

 Measurement of difference in wavelength:


 WORKING PRINCIPLE-
 It is based on the phenomenon of “Division Of Amplitude” to produce coherent source for the
Interference.
This Interference makes use of multiple
reflections between two closely spaced partially
silvered parallel surfaces. Some Part of light is trans-
mitted is time. The light is reaches the second surface
resulting in multiple offset beams which can interfere
with each other. The large no. of interfering rays produces an interference pattern with extremely high
resolution.

The fabry-perot interferometer is used in the transmissive


mode.
 FABRY-PEROT INTERFEROMETER-

 The Fabry-Perot Interferometer is a high resolving power


instrument,
which makes use of the fringes of equal inclination, produced by
the given laser source after multiple reflections in air film between
the mirrors. It is also called optical resonator.

 CONSTRUCTION- The Interferometer consists of two optically plane


glass plates A and B with their inner surfaces silvered and placed
accurately parallel to each other. Screws are provided to secure
parallelism if disturbed. This system is difficult to manufacture and is
no more in use. Instead an ETALON which is much more easily
manufactured is used. The rigidly held parallel at a fixed distance
apart.
The reflectance of the two surfaces can be as high as
90% to 99.9%. Although both reflected and transmitted
beams interfere with each other.
 SODIUM-VAPOR LAMP-

 A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas- discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a
characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.

 T W O VA R I E T I E S O F S U C H L A M P E X I S T:
1- Low pressure sodium-vapor lamps- These kind of sodium-
vapor lamps are highly efficient electrical light sources, but
their yellow light restricts applications to outdoor lighting,
such as street lamps.
This lamp only give monochromatic yellow light
and so inhibit color vision at night.

2- High pressure sodium- vapor lamps- These kind of sodium- vapor lamps emit a broader
spectrum of light than the low – pressure lamps but they still have poorer color rendering tha other
types of lamps.
 He-Ne LASER-
 INTRODUCTION- A “Helium – Neon” Laser was the first type of Atomic gas laser and was the first
laser that was operated in CW (continuous wave) mode, whose gain medium consists of a maximum
of 72% Helium and 28% Neon at total pressure of about 1 torr inside of a small electrical discharge, the
best known and most widely used He-Ne Laser
operates at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, in the
red part of visible Spectrum.

 BRIEF- (i) Type of Laser – Atomic Gas Laser


(ii) Mode _ Continuous Wave mode
(iii) Composition _ 72% Helium & 28% Neon
(iv) Wavelength in Red part _ 632.8 nm
(v) Ratio of He & Ne _ 10 : 1
 CONSTRUCTION OF He-Ne Laser-
 He-Ne Laser consists of a long discharge tube filled with
a mixture of Helium and Neon Gases in the ratio 10:1.
Neon atoms are the active centers and having energy
levels suitable for laser transitions while Helium atoms help
in exciting Neon atoms, electrodes are provided in the
discharge tube to produce discharge in the gas. They are
connected to a high voltage power supply.

The tube is
hermetically seated by inclined windows arranged at its two ends. On the axis of the tube, two
mirrors are arranged externally which form the Fabry -Perot optical Resonator.
 WORKING OF He – Ne laser-

He – Ne Laser employs a four level pumping scheme. The energy levels of


He & Ne atoms are shown in diagram, when the power is on a high
voltage of about 10 kV is applied across the gas, it is sufficient to ionize
the gas. The electrons and ions produced in the process of discharge
are accelerated towards the anode and cathode respectively.
The energy levels of He & Ne atoms are shown in diagram, when the
power is on a high voltage of about 10 kV is applied across the gas,
it is sufficient to ionize the gas. The electrons and ions produced in the
process of discharge are accelerated towards the anode and
cathode respectively.
The energetic electrons excite Helium atoms through collisions. One of the excited level of Helium 𝐹3 (2S)
is at 20.61 eV above the ground level. It is a metastable level and the excited He atoms can-not return to the ground level
through the spontaneous emission. It can return to the ground level only by transferring its excess energy to a Neon atom
through collision. Such can occur between the excited Helium atom and ground level Ne atom.
The kinetic energy of He atoms provide the additional 0.05 eV required for excitation of the Neon
atoms. Helium atoms drop to the ground state after exciting Neon atoms. This is the pumping
mechanism in He- Ne Laser. The of the He atoms is to excite Neon atoms and cause population
inversion. The probability of energy transfer from Helium atoms to Neon atoms is more as there are
10 Helium atoms per Neon atom in the mixture. The probability of reverse is negligible.

The upper state of Neon atom 𝐸6 (5S) is metastable state. The 𝐸3 (3P) is sparsely populated at
ordinary temperature and a state of population inversion is readily established between 𝐸6 (5S) &
𝐸3 (3P) levels. Random photons emitted spontaneously prompt stimulated emission and lasing
occurs. The transition 𝐸6 𝐸3 generates a laser beam of red colour of wavelength 632.8 nm.
Other possible transitions produce 3.39 μm laser beam when atoms make transition from 𝐸6 𝐸5
and 1.15 μm laser beam when there is transition of atoms from state 𝐸4 𝐸3 . The Neon atoms
drop from the levels 𝐸3 𝑡𝑜 𝐸2 spontaneously, 𝐸2 level is however a metastable state. Consequently,
Neon atoms tend to accumulate at 𝐸2 level. It is necessary that these atoms are brought to the
ground state 𝐸1 (2P) quickly; otherwise the number of atoms at the will be available for excitation
once again. If the diameter of the discharge tube is increased the probability of collisions of atoms
with the walls decreases and the Neon atoms tend to accumulate at energy level 𝐸2 (3S).in due
course of time, the atoms are no more available at the ground level for further excitation, therefore
laser ceases to operate.
 CHARACTERISTICS OF He – Ne LASER
 He – Ne Laser is a relatively low power device with an output in the visible red region of the spectrum. The most common
wavelength produced by He – Ne laser is 632.8 nm.
 Two more low power (1.15 μm and 3.39 μm) infrared wavelengths can be produced if desired.
 Majority of He – Ne lasers generate less than 10 m-watt of power, but some can be obtained commercially with up to 50
m-watt of power.
 For He – Ne lasers the typical laser tube is from 10 to 100 cm in length and the life time of such a tube can be as high as
20,000 hours.
 He – Ne laser operate in continuous wave mode.

 APPLICATIONS OF He – Ne LASER:
The He – Ne laser is one of the most commonly used laser today because of the following
applications.
(i) Many Schools/Colleges/Universities use this type of lases in their science programs and experiments.
(ii) He – Ne lasers also used in super market, checkout counters to read bar code sand barcodes and QR codes.
(iii) He – Ne lasers are also used by newspapers for reproducing transmitted photographs.
(iv) He – Ne lasers can be used as an alignment tool and in the field of Interferometry.
(v) Ii can also be used in gun for targeting.
(vi) Red He – Ne laser is used in laser Disc player to read the optical disc.
 ADVANTAGES OF He – Ne LASER
 He – Ne laser has very good coherence property
 He – Ne laser can produce three wavelengths that are 1.15 μm , 3.39 μm ,and 632.8 nm, in which the 632.8 nm is
most common because it is usually in red color.
 He – Ne laser has very small length approximately from 10 to 100 cm and best life time 20,000 hours.
 Cost of He – Ne laser is less than from most of the other lasers.
 Construction of He – Ne laser is also not very complex.
 He – Ne laser provide inherent safety due to low power output.

 DISADVANTAGES OF He – Ne LASER
 It is relatively low power device means its output power is low.
 It is low gain system or device.
 To obtain single wavelength laser light, the other two wavelengths of laser need suppression which is done by
many techniques and devices so it requires extra technical skill and increases the cost also.
 High voltage requirement can be considered as its disadvantage.
 Escaping of gas from laser plasma tube is also its disadvantage.
 SUPPRESSING UNWANTED WAVELENGTHS IN He – Ne
LASER-
 He – Ne laser has many applications, the red part of laser is most desirable, hence it is necessary to
suppress the other two infra wavelengths and prevent them from lasing so so we would get the
desired output.
 In Low power He – Ne laser: It is normally done with proper coating on the feedback mirrors. If they
are coated for high reflectance at 632.8 nm then they will not reflect a high percentage of infrared
wavelengths. This causes the desired wavelength to have a low loss and the undesired wavelength
to have a high loss, which reduces the possibility in the infrared wavelengths lasing and enhance
lasing at 632.8 nm.
 In High power He – Ne laser: The mirror coating cannot totally suppress the infrared wavelengths
therefore in these lasers the magnet is placed near the plasma tube which provides an additional
suppression effect on the infrared wavelengths.
These two suppression techniques are not enough to
prevent infrared lasing hence we use an infrared filter
between the laser mirrors to absorb the unwanted
wavelengths.
 HE – NE LASER USED IN OUR LAB EXPERIMENT-
 OBJECTIVE USED-
 FORMULA USED IN EXPERIMENT-
𝟐(𝒅𝟐 −𝒅𝟏 )
λ= …………(1)
(𝒎𝟐 −𝒎𝟏 )
Where, λ → wavelength of given laser source
(𝒎𝟐 −𝒎𝟏 ) → number of maxima counted.
 DERIVATION OF THE FORMULA USED- the optical path difference between two neighbouring rays
is:
∆ = 2ndcosθ …………….(2)
We see in the figure in side for calculating the optical path difference that is shown for a general cavity. α &
β are the angle of incidence and angle of refraction respectively.
Optical path difference ∆ = n(AB + BC) – AD ……………(3)
𝒅
from the above figure… AB = 𝒄𝒐𝒔(𝜷) = BC

AD = 2d tan(β)sin(α)
AD = 2d tan(β)n sin(β) (using snell’s law)
Now collecting the above terms and putting them in equation (1) we get-
1
∆ = 2nd{ - tan(β)sin(β)}
cos(β)
1−𝑠𝑖𝑛2 (𝛽)
= 2nd{ }
cos(𝛽)

= 2ndcosβ .………….(4)
Equation (2) & (4) are identical hence, θ = β &
condition for the maxima is: ∆ = mλ ……………(5)
𝝀
condition for the minima is: ∆ = (2m+1) ……………(6)
𝟐
For determining wavelength λ; using relation (2) & (5), wavelength of the incident light can be determined accurately. Let
the initial separation between the mirrors is 𝑑1 . If one counts the number of fringes (say maxima) appearing or disappearing
at the centre (θ = 0° ) then
2𝑑1 = 𝑚1 λ1 ………..………..(7)
2𝑑2 = 𝑚2 λ2 .…………….(8)
taking difference of equation (7) with (8) we get –

(𝑑2 − 𝑑1 )
λ=2
(𝑚2 −𝑚1 )
Derived.
 FEATURES OF FABRY-PEROT
INTERFEROMETER-
 CO-EFFICIENT OF FINESSE: The complete interference pattern appears as a set of
concentric rings, the sharpness of the rings depends on a parameter called co-efficient of
finesse F defined as-
𝟒𝑹
F=
(𝟏−𝑹)𝟐
where, R- the co-efficient of reflection of intensity.

RESOLVING POWER(λΤ𝑑λ) OF FABRY-PEROT


INTERFEROMETER-

 The resolving power is a measure of the ability to discriminate between sets of circles
generated by different wavelengths. Moreover, to is also necessary to define
mathematically a separation criterion between two very close maxima. The criterion
represents one’s visual ability to distinguish two concentric circles.
 FORMULA OF RESOLVING POWER-
λ 2𝑛𝜋 𝑅 1/2
= ( )
𝑑λ (1−𝑅) 5

 DERIVATION OF RESOLVING POWER-


The co-efficient of finesse is ;
𝟒𝑹
F = (𝟏−𝑹)𝟐
Since intensity for the patterns obtained ;
𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙
I= ф 𝟐 (𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙 =𝑰𝟎 )
[𝟏+𝑭 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝟐
]

𝟐𝝅∆
Phase difference, = …………..(1)
λ
Where, ∆→ is the path difference.
Since we know the path difference between two interfering light beams; (∆ = 2tcosθ) if θ→𝟎° then ∆ = 2t
Now putting in above equation (1) we get –
4𝝅t
= ………....(2)
λ
Now, above equation (2) differentiating w.r.to λ we get-

𝑑ф 4п 𝑡
=
𝑑λ λ2

λ2 𝑑ф
or 𝑑λ =
4п 𝑡
λ 4п𝑡
or = ……….(3)
𝑑λ λ𝑑ф

CASE(1)
intensity at mid point in the given region of figure shown.

𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = 𝐼1 + 𝐼2 ( 𝐼1 = 𝐼2 = 𝐼 )

𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = 2𝐼

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑝 2
𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = 2𝐼0 { 𝑝
}

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜋Τ2 2
𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = 2𝐼0 { 𝜋/2 }
8𝐼0
𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = (𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = 0.81𝐼0 )
𝜋2

CASE(2) 𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = 𝐼1 + 𝐼2

𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥
= 𝑑ф + 𝑑ф
[1+𝐹{sin 2𝑛𝜋+ 2 }2 [1+𝐹{sin 2𝑛𝜋− 2 }2

2𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = 𝑑ф ……….(4)
[1+𝐹{sin 4 }2 ]
using previous result (𝐼𝑚𝑖𝑑 = 0.81𝐼0 ) we get;

2
0.81𝐼0 = 𝐼0 𝑑ф
[1+𝐹{sin 4 }2 ]

𝑑ф 2
[1 + 𝐹{sin }2 ] = 0.81
4

𝑑ф 2 2
[1 + 𝐹 ] = 0.81
4

𝑑ф 2
1+𝐹 = 2.47
4
𝑑ф 2
𝐹 = 1.47
4

23.52
𝑑ф2 =
𝐹

23.52 1/2
𝑑ф = ( )
𝐹

20
𝑑ф ≃ ( )1/2
𝐹
putting in equation(3) we get-
λ 4𝜋𝑡 20 1/2
= ( )
𝑑λ λ 𝐹

now we will write the above left hand in terms of (n & R) ,where n→ order of maxima.
Since, 2t = nλ hence from above equation we get :
λ 20 1/2
= 2𝑛𝜋( )
𝑑λ 𝐹

now putting the coefficient of finesse we get:


λ 2𝑛𝜋 𝑅 1/2
= ( )
𝑑λ (1−𝑅) 5
 (1) If we increase the order of maxima then resolving power will be high.
(2) if we increase co-efficient of reflection of intensity, we get higher resolving power.

COMPARISION BETWEEN MICHELSON AND FABRY-PEROT INTERFROMETER-

MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER FABRY-PEROT INTERFEROMETER


(I) In this interferometer the two mirrors are (I) In this interferometer the two partially silvered
held perpendicular, for reflection and parallel plates are held together.
transmission two glass plates are used,
one is as beam splitter which is partially
silvered and the other one of them work
as compensator for compensate the path
difference.

(ii) The fringe pattern that we obtain is the (ii) The fringe pattern that we obtain is the interference
interference of a reflected light beam of two transmitted light beams.
and a partially transmitted light beam.

(iii)By this Interferometer we obtain circular (iii) This interferometer gives only circular fringe pattern.
and straight fringe patterns.
MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER
THANK - YOU
FABRY- PERO

AND

THANK – YOU
He – Ne LASER

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