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Topic:

Group members:

Waseem shaikh (13CE195) Group Leader


Ali sahito (13CE143) Assistant Group Leader
Ifran rind (13CE55)
Ajay kumar (13CE71)
Classification Of Loads
Loads are classified into two basic types

LOADS
GRAVITY LOAD: LATERAL LOAD:
It is the load due to A force acting on
gravity which a structure or
attracts the bodies a structural member
towards the centre of in
earth in downward a transverse direction
direction. It contains for example;
dead load & live load earthquake load ,
wind load
EARTHQUAKE LOAD
• Earthquake load is another lateral live load.
• The earthquake creates ground movements that can
be categorized as a "shake," "rattle," and a "roll.“
• An earthquake load may be deep or shallow depends
upon the epicenter.
• Geographically earth has 4 regions/zones and more
critical regions are in northern areas i.e. hilly areas.
• The designer is to consider this load according to the
zone.
When earthquake load
is generated, the
structure moves towards
centre of gravity, if
weight of structure is
more and chances of
regaining its position
are less. If structure has
light weight, chances of
regaining its position is
more
The lateral earthquake force acting on the
building in any direction can be computed using
a modification of
F = ma
F = force
m = mass after
a = acceleration modification

F=ZIKCSW

The detail of above equation is giving in next slide


Earthquake Force Equation
F= ZIKCSW

• F = earthquake force
• Z = earthquake zone coefficient
• I = occupancy importance factor
• K = lateral force coefficient
• C = depends on fundamental building period
• S = numerical coefficient for site resonance
• W = total dead load
Earthquake Zone Coefficient (Z)
It is based on the geographic location of building.
There are four zones and each zone has different
Value, like

Zone 1 • 0.187

Zone 2 • 0.375

Zone 3 • 0.75

Zone 4 • 1.00
Occupancy Importance factor (I)
• Importance of structure depends upon the use,
occupancy & nature of structures.
For example: Hospital, schools, nuclear plants
are designed for more factor of safety.
• Buildings having more usage of population will
have more factors of safety e.g. shopping malls.
• If factor of safety increases, effect of EQ force
decreases
Occupancy Importance factor (I)

1.5 for essential facilities

1.25 for assembly halls

1 for all other occupancy


Lateral force coefficient (K)

• It is also called horizontal force factor


• Its value depends on the type of structure Like

1. All building with full framing systems except as below ( 1.0)


2. Building with dual bracing system consisting of a ductile
moment resisting frame and shear walls or brace frame
(0.80)
3. Elevated tanks plus fill contents supported by four or more
cross-braced legs and not supported by building (2.5).
4. Structures other than buildings like dams, bridges ( 2.0)
Numerical Coefficient For Site
Resonance (S)

• Soil/ Geotechnical characteristics, depends upon


bearing capacity of soil. Hard soil/ rock do not
absorb waves but soft soil absorbs waves.
• Use S=1.5 unless refined site geotechnical data
are available
Factor (C)
• It is based on the fundamental building period, T
• It is calculated by
C = 1/15 √ T ≤ 0.12
Here, T (fundamental building period) is obtained
as the period of vibrating spring which has
general equation
T = 2∏√(m/k)
Where m = mass
k = spring constant
Factor (C)

• Since spring constants are difficult to determine,


the building period is more commonly computed
using an experience factor, to obtain
• T = JH/√(D) (seconds)
Where
• J = 0.05 when H (height) & D (lateral dimension
of building in direction of interest) are in feet,
• J = 0.91 when H & D are in meters.
Factor (C)

• When the frame is made of ductile material such


as steel, it is allowed to approximate the building
period as
T = 0.10 × number of stories above base
• After finding the value of T and then C value, it
should b satisfie the condition
CS ≤ 0.14
Force At Top
• After finding the value of earthquake force (F) by
using the formula F = ZIKCSW
• We hav to calculate the Ftop,
Ftop = 0.07 TF ≤ 0.25 F
But Ftop may b zero when T ≤ 0.7 s.
• The force at any story level is calculated as
Fn = (F - Ftop) Wnhn/∑Wnhn
• Where
Wn = load of the nth floor
hn = height to any floor from ground
level
• Problem:

Calculate the total earthquake load and the load on each


floor level for 10 story building with the basement, the
reamining data given below:
• Dimension of building 40’*90’
• The occupancy importance of factor for the building is 1.
• Value of K, the frame of building of ductile material with
shear walls.
• Refined geotechnical data for the site, not available
• Weight of each roof is 76 kips
• Weight of each floor is equal to 330 kips.
• Height of each floor is 10’
• Solution:
Data
Dimension = 40’ * 90’ (plan)
Direction = 40’
Z= 0.75
I = 1.0
K = 0.8
S = 1.5
Weight of roof = 76 kips
Weight of each floor 337 kips
Height of each floor = 10’
Total height of building = 100’
F = ? , Ftop = ? , Fn = ?

Equation : F = ZIKCSW
so
• Weight of building
= 76 + 10 (337)
= 76 +3370 = 3446 kips

Now C = 1/15√ T ………. (1)

• T = JH/√ D = 0.05 (100)/√40 = 0.7906 sec


• T = 0.10 × no of stories = 0.10 × 10 = 1.0 sec
• Average value of T
= 0.7906 + 1.0 / 2
= 0.895 sec
Now put T value in equation (1)
C= 1/15 √0.895
C = 0.0705 ≤ 0.12
• Now check
• CS ≤ 0.14 = (0.0705)(1.5) = 0.1058 ≤ 0.14
• Now total earthquake load is
• F = (0.75)(1.0)(0.8)(0.1058(3446)
F = 218.64 kips

Now earthquake load at Top


Ftop = 0.07×T×F
= 0.07×0.895×218.6
Ftop = 13.66 kips ≤ 0.25 F

Load at Each Floor


Fn = Fn = (F - Ftop) Wnhn/∑Wnhn

∑Wnhn = (337)*(90+80+70+60+50+40+30+20+10)
= 151650 k-ft
• Fn = 218.6 -13.7 / 151650

Fn = 0.00135 Wnhn (general formula)


F9 = 0.00135×337×90 = 40.95 kips
F8 = 0.00135×337×80 = 36.422 kips
F7 = 0.00135×337×70 = 31.87 kips
F6 = 0.00135×337×60 = 27.32 kips
F5 = 0.00135×337×50 = 22.77 kips
F4 = 0.00135×337×40 = 18.21 kips
F3 = 0.00135×337×30 = 13.66 kips
F2 = 0.00135×337×20 = 9.10 kips
F1 = 0.00135×337×10 = 4.55 kips

∑Fn = 218.58