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Introduction to

Data Reduction
and Plotting

Before we start talking about Data Reduction programs


Lets talk about what they do and why they make our life
easier!

What IS Data reduction?


Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Data Reduction is quite simply taking the data we produce during


surveys and changing it into x,y,z Coordinates

Take Distance, Bearing, Vertical Angle Convert into East (x), North (y), Vertical (z)
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Then the X, Y, Z coordinates can be converted by plotting programs into


Lineplots, which we can then use to draw maps
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

A little history!
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting
Before we had computers, we converted the data by hand, using trig,
Sine, Cosine. Each shot has to be done twice, once for
vertical/horizontal, and once for bearing

This would lead to hours


of hand calculations for
each survey trip!!
This is an example of just
one part of one survey
from Rainshelter!
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting
But then the funs not over yet! – Then the Line plot had to be generated –
either by calculating and using all X,Y,Z data, or hand layout

An example where I calculated X,Y,Z


Here Jeff actually drew the cave by
and hand plotted the points on graph
scaling down each shot – he is actually
paper and connected them with lines
using the bearings from the survey!
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting
I think you can see why we use computer programs now!

We can go from data to Line plot in minutes!!


Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

So now that you understand why we use computer


programs

There are many different types of data


reduction/plotting programs available for low, or no
cost to cavers

Lets look at what is available


Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

- Compass
- Walls Classic Data Reduction
and Plotting programs
- Survex

- Therion – Data reduction, plotting AND Final Map generation


- Auriga - Data reduction and Plotting on a Palm Pilot
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting
Walls:
- Excellent error detection
- SVG roundtripping
- Free !

http://www.ute
xas.edu/tmm/s
ponsored_sites/
tss/Walls/tsswal
ls.htm
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Survex
Survex is an open source cave-surveying
software package, licensed under the GPL. It is http://survex.com/
designed to be portable and can be run on a
variety of platforms, including Microsoft
Windows, Mac OS X, and Unix.
Survex is very powerful cave survey software,
and is actively developing into a complete cave
visualisation package. It has a sophisticated GUI
frontend.
Survex has no arbitrary limits, and so is
particularly good for large complicated cave
systems, or areas where you need to see the
relationships between multiple cave systems.
Putting existing data into it should be easy.
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Therion
http://therion.speleo.sk/
A Czech program that has
won a lot of converts – it
actually draws the map as
well as reduces the data
-Free
-Extremely complex
- Long learning Curve
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Auriga
http://www.speleo.qc.ca/auriga/
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Compass:
- Excellent graphical presentation
- Well supported
- Easy to use
- Shareware ($25)
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass - Downloading


When you get to the
Download page, you will see
a huge number of options
All you will need is the
Compass for Windows
All the others are add-ons
and fluff!
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass - Installation


When you install Compass
you will find a new set of
programs
The most important are the
- Project Manager
- Editor
- Viewer
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Project Manager

In most cases this is where


you will always start
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Opening a Cave Project

Easiest way to start a new


cave is by hitting the
create new survey file
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Opening a Cave Project

Compass will first ask


you for the name of
THE SURVEY –
NOT the name of
the cave.
This is the survey
designation – such as
A, or B, or PS – what
ever the survey
designation is
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Opening a Cave Project

I will call my first survey A


Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Opening a Cave Project

Compass will then ask you to


save the new file as…
This is where you Name the
Cave!
Be aware that compass tries
to save everything in its root
directory – a obscure file
called wcomp32
You can change this to
anything you want
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Opening a Cave Project


I have decided to call my
cave Example

I have saved the data in a


file with all my other cave
data

Compass will for a .DAT


file for your data, named
after the cave name
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Opening a Cave Project

Now the project manager


shows Example cave active

Other options are now


available

Click the Edit cave survey


button to enter data
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data

The Cave Editor has


opened up
It is titled with the Cave
Name
The First Survey (that we
created) is shown
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data

Mistake Warning!
Most people think that if
the survey is highlighted,
you click on the Edit
heading/survey tabs to start
entering data
Not True – if you do this:
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data

You end up in a completely


new survey file – called and
designated NEW
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data


Instead – Double click
the A survey
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data

And the correct survey


will open
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data - Settings

Before entering Data,


make sure all the settings
are correct
Go to the Edit Heading
tab – all settings are here
Enter Cave name (yes,
again…)
You can also enter the
survey date and team
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data - Settings

Hit the setting button


to check all main
settings
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data - Settings

All these settings can be changed

This is the order of the survey


data

This is the order of the passage


dimensions

Make sure these match your


survey paper
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data - Settings


Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data - Settings

And because we typically use


backsights, make sure the enable
backsights button is selected

Corrected backsights depends on how


you survey, this button only becomes
available when the backsights are
enabled
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data - Settings

Hit the units tab to check all


your units
Make sure the units reflect how
you surveyed
If you used a foot and inches
tape, or a foot and decimal tape,
these can be set
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data


You are ready to start entering data – zoom out the window enough
to see all the columns

Put your cursor on the first tape cell, and enter data. Hit tab or
enter to move to the next.
When you are done with all the data, Compass will automatically
start a new line and fill in the station names
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data


Continue until complete
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data


Make SURE you hit save File, or you WILL lose your data
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data

Hit new survey to add


a second survey
Name the survey
designation
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data


Compass will start a new survey ready for data

But your tie in may be incorrect – you may have to go in and do


this by hand
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data


Simply Highlight the cell, and retype the correct station
designations
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data

Compass will automatically continue to fill in station


designations after you have corrected them
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data

To check your data


open up the Block tab
and hit validate
backsights
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Entering Survey Data

Hit the validate button


and the program will
scan through for errors
in data
You can change the
difference in data that is
considered an error
If it finds any it will list
them
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting


Once you have all your
data input and checked,
you might as well try a
plot and see what it
looks like
Make sure your data is
saved and then close the
editor box
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

The project managers


should be behind the
editor screen, and should
show your cave survey
folder
At this point just hit the
process and view cave
button
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

The Compass Cave


Viewer will open up
showing your cave
survey
It may open in a
reduced window, and
show only a bit of
your survey – enlarge
it to full screen
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

At full screen it
should show
most of your
survey on it
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

Compass’s Cave View


is a wonderfully full
featured cave plotter,
but it has it complex
parts
First thing that gets
everyone confused is
the overview function
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting


In overview mode, you
cannot do to much, like
zoom or move the plot

Click right on the over


and it will change to
zoom, which will allow
you to manipulate the
plot
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

Likewise, clicking on
the plan box will
change it from plan
(viewed from the
top) to profile
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Undo

Switches between Plan and Profile

Redraw

Goes back into overview

Always resets the cave to the first


view (for when you screw up)
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Multiplier - this controls how much things will change when you
start manipulating the plot
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Pan up
Pan down
Pan left
Pan right

Drag
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Pitch up/down (profile)

Rotate Left/Right

Zoom in/out
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Rotation Compass
3D

Color by distance

Color by depth

Show Elevation

Mark Stations
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

We Can use the


preferences menu
to bring up the
Colors and fonts
control
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

And use this to change


the background color to
white
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

To white
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

In the same
menue, I can
open passage
modeling
Pick a model
And turn on
the display
Introduction to
Data Reduction
and Plotting

Using Compass – Plotting

And create 3D
models!