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IMS IP Multimedia

Subsystem

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IMS is…

 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architecture for offering


multimedia services on the packet domain.
 IMS is access agnostic, hence it is not just for UMTS or GPRS, but
also supports WLAN, fixed line, LTE etc.
 IMS is not a service, but a service enabler
 IMS gives Service control by introducing service signalling
 All IMS services can be done without IMS but without IMS,
service creation can be complex, and expensive to the operator
and the user
 IMS gives Convergence of all media communications on to the
packet network.

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Service interoperability non-IMS
Service 2 Service 2
Service 1 Service 1
Operator 1 Operator 3

Service 2
Service 1

Operator 2

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Service interoperability IMS
Service 2 Service 2
Service 1 Service 1
Operator 1 Operator 3

Service 2
Service 1

Operator 2

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IMS architecture

SIP Application
SIP Application Servers
Servers
HSS
IMS MRF
I-CSCF

P-CSCF MGCF
CDMA 2000 S-CSCF

MGW

MSC(Server)
RNC SGSN Corporate
GGSN

BSC
CN
UMTS/GPRS MGW

WLAN

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Architecture Elements

Database Elements
• HSS (Home Subscriber Server) CSE(SCP) SIP Application
Servers
OSA Application
Server

• SLF (Subscription Locator


Function) IM-SSF OSA-SCS

IMS Control Elements (Call


HSS
Session Control Function)
• S-CSCF
• P-CSCF
• I-CSCF P-CSCF S-CSCF I-CSCF

Control Plane Interworking


MRF

Elements MGCF

• MGCF - Media Gateway Control BGFC

Function
• BGCF - Breakout Gateway Control SGW
MGW
Function
• SGW - Signaling Gateway

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Other Elements
IMS Service Elements CSE(SCP) SIP Application OSA Application

• AS (Application Server)
Servers Server

IM-SSF OSA-SCS

External Service and Service


Interworking Elements
• OSA SCS HSS

• OSA Framework
• OSA Application Server
• CAMEL elements - IM-SSF (IP Multimedia P-CSCF S-CSCF I-CSCF

Switching Service Function)

Resource Elements MRF

• Media Resources Function (MRF) MGCF


BGCF

Media Interworking Elements SGW


MGW
• MGW (Media Gateway)

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Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF)
Home IMS
Network
CSE(SCP) SIP Application OSA Application
• Entry point to IMS from any access Servers Server

network
HSS IM-SSF OSA-SCS

• Local outbound stateful proxy for all SIP


requests/responses, ensuring all signalling
is sent via the home network P-CSCF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
S-CSCF

• Performs compression/decompression for


MRF
efficient use of the radio interface
• Performs integrity protection mechanisms MGW
MGCF SGW

using IPsec GGSN

• Includes a Policy Decision Function (PDF)


Home Access
Network

that authorizes bearer resources Visited IMS


Network P-CSCF
• The P-CSCF and the GGSN are located in PSTN
PLMN
the same network, that is, either both in the Internet GGSN Visited Access
IP networks Network
visited PLMN or both in the home PLMN.

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PDF
Home IMS
• Performs policy control and media Network
authorisation based on the policy of the CSE(SCP) SIP Application OSA Application
Servers Server
access network and based on the
session parameters carried in the SIP HSS IM-SSF OSA-SCS

signalling

P-CSCF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
S-CSCF

MRF

MGCF SGW
MGW

GGSN

Home Access
Network

P-CSCF

PDF

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Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF)

• First point of contact in the home network Home IMS


Network
from a visited NW CSE(SCP) SIP Application OSA Application
Servers Server

• Acts as a SIP proxy located at the edge of a


network. HSS IM-SSF OSA-SCS

• Queries the HSS to help in selecting a S-


CSCF for a user. P-CSCF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
S-CSCF

MRF

MGCF SGW
MGW

GGSN

Home Access
Network

Visited IMS
Network P-CSCF
PSTN
PLMN

Internet GGSN Visited Access


IP networks Network

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Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF)
Home IMS
Network
• Stateful SIP server providing session CSE(SCP) SIP Application OSA Application

control. Servers Server

• Acts as a SIP registrar HSS IM-SSF OSA-SCS

• Always located in the home network.


• Central point for control of operator P-CSCF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
provided services.
MRF
• Performs authentication.
MGCF SGW
MGW

GGSN

Home Access
Network

Visited IMS
Network P-CSCF
PSTN
PLMN

Internet GGSN Visited Access


IP networks Network

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HSS and SLF
Home IMS
Network

Home Subscriber Server (HSS) CSE(SCP) SIP Application


Servers
OSA Application
Server

• An evolution of the HLR


• HLR (subscriber and authentication data for HSS IM-SSF OSA-SCS

CS and PS domains) + the new IMS


functionality P-CSCF

• Location Register S-CSCF


I-CSCF

• IMS subscriber records MRF

• IMS service profile processing


MGCF SGW
• IMS authentication data MGW

GGSN

Home Access
Network

Visited IMS
Network P-CSCF
PSTN
PLMN

Internet GGSN Visited Access


Subscription Locator Function (SLF) IP networks Network

• A look-up function that can be used in networks


where several HSS exist.

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Breakout Gateway Control
Function (BGCF)
• Selects the appropriate PSTN/CS domain
break out point for the session. Home Network External Network

• Selects the network in which the BGCF


S-CSCF BGCF
interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain is to
occur. If the interworking is in another
network, then the BGCF will forward the SIP MGCF
MGCF

signalling to the BGCF of that network. If


GGSN
the interworking is in another network and
network hiding is required by the operator, MGW
MGW

the BGCF will forward the SIP signalling via


an I-CSCF toward the BGCF of the other
network. Home External
GSM/UMTS Network
CS Network

• Selects the MGCF in the network in which


the interworking with PSTN/CS domain is to
occur and forwards the SIP signalling to that
MGCF.

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Multimedia Resource
Function (MRF) Home IMS
Network
CSE(SCP) SIP Application OSA Application
Servers Server

The media resource function provides the additional


media resources complementary or fundamental for HSS IM-SSF OSA-SCS

services. The functions to be applied will be:


• Conference management such as, a floor control
mechanism to allow some members of a conference to P-CSCF
I-CSCF
control the conference. S-CSCF

• To provide additional media streams to the session, MRF

such as media fade-in for rich calls.


• Play announcements and tones MGW
MGCF SGW

GGSN

The MRF is split in to two functional parts : Home Access


Network

• Multimedia Resource Function Controller (MRFC)


• Multimedia Resource Function Processor (MRFP) MRF
MRFC

Mp

MRFP

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IMS service environment
Home IMS
Network
There are three different types of application CSE(SCP) SIP Application OSA Application
Servers Server
servers, depending on the application hosted:
HSS IM-SSF OSA-SCS

• SIP AS (Application Server): IMS native


applications
P-CSCF S-CSCF
• IM-SSF (IP Multimedia Switching Service I-CSCF

Function) Legacy applications


MRF
• OSA-SCS (Service Capability Server): Service
frameworks (e.g. OSA) MGCF SGW
MGW

GGSN

Home Access
Network

Visited IMS
Network P-CSCF
PSTN
PLMN

Internet GGSN Visited Access


IP networks Network

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SIP Application Server
Home IMS
Network
CSE(SCP) SIP Application OSA Application
• Accept requests and responses. It will be able Servers Server

to control, finish or initiate a new SIP


IM-SSF OSA-SCS
transaction HSS

• Route the session towards another user or


network P-CSCF
S-CSCF
• Interact with other service platforms for the I-CSCF

support of services MRF

• Communicate with the HSS in order to obtain


MGCF SGW
information about subscriptions and services MGW

GGSN

Home Access
Network

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Registration to the network

UE GSN HLR IMS

1. Bearer Level Registration: GPRS

2. PDP Context Activation

3. CSCF Discovery

4. Application Level Registration

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Session establishment model
Steps:
Home A
1) Route
Home B
AS HSS AS

signalling to
11 10 8 7 5 4
A’s home
9 6 3 network
S-CSCF I-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF
16 17 18
2) Route
12 15 19 2
signalling to
P-CSCF
Visited B Visited A
P-CSCF B’s home
13 14 20 1 network
GGSN GGSN
SGSN SGSN 3) Route
signalling to
Radio Access Network Radio Access Network

User plane (RTP)


B terminal
Application level Registration (I)
Home A I-CSCF
S-CSCF
Subscriber
P-CSCF
HSS SIP-AS A UES-CSCF
The I-CSCF
P-CSCF
initiatesfinds
finds
a SIP
contactsthe
the
7 S-CSCF
I-CSCF
downloads
Registration
the HSSwith
challenges allocated
the
to find
theincluding
help
thetoS-
3
this
of
authentication
hisDNS
CSCFpublic
user
subscriber or
user
serving selects
vector
ID and
this a
4
6 new
for
his this
private
S-CSCF
subscriber
subscriber. userfor ID
this
user. the HSS
from
5. REGISTER
I-CSCF S-CSCF
8. Unauthorized
2. REGISTER 9. Unauthorized

Visited A
P-CSCF

1. REGISTER 10. Unauthorized


GGSN
SGSN
Radio Access Network

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Application level Registration (II)
Home A P-CSCF
S-CSCF
I-CSCF
Subscriber
HSS SIP-AS The UE
S-CSCF
I-CSCF
P-CSCF
calculates
finds
informs
finds the
contactsthe
the
17 the
S-CSCF
I-CSCF
credentials
HSSwith
other
authorizes allocated
that
Application
to and
the
thethis
find help
S-
thetoS-
CSCF
Servers
this
of
re-DNS
initiates
user
is about
serving
registration
servingthe
and the
SIP
the
this
13 14 18. REGISTER
16 subscriber.
user's
Registration
informsregistration
the The HSS
subscriber
19. OK
sends the S-CSCF the
15. REGISTER
I-CSCF S-CSCF
service profile
20. OK
12. REGISTER 21. OK

Visited A
P-CSCF

11. REGISTER 22. OK


GGSN
SGSN
Radio Access Network

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Session Establishment
Home A Home B HSS
P-CSCF
I-CSCF
S-CSCF
Subscriber
SIP-AS HSS SIP-AS Subscriber
The I-CSCF
P-CSCF
S-CSCF A
routes
isinitiates
in the
Home first
the
HSS returns fetches the
message
point
B
A
a SIP
performs
from
address invitation
of contact
the tothe
of
HSS service
the the in the
S-CSCF
5 6 originating
IMS
invocation
including
for the
address
serving ofthe
for
S-CSCF
subscriber.
subscriber
the SIP URI
S-CSCFB
It
subscriber
of forwards
thatsubscriber
is serving A.
B.
theB. The
ItINVITE
S-
3. INVITE 4. INVITE 7. INVITE request
forwards
CSCF
subscriberfinds
tothe
the
BtheINVITE
I-CSCF
entry
I-CSCF S-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF to thein
point P-CSCF
Home B and UE
14. OK 13. OK 12. OK
2. INVITE 15. OK 11. OK 8. INVITE

Visited A Visited B
P-CSCF P-CSCF

1. INVITE 16. OK 10. OK 9. INVITE


GGSN GGSN
SGSN SGSN
Radio Access Network Radio Access Network

A Calls B
A B

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IMS-CS interworking
MG
MGCF
S-CSCF.
S-CSCF/DNS
Subscriber
BGCF
Home A IMS Gateway Subscriber
The MG performs
S-CSCF
BGCF
home
MGCF BGCF
selects
performs
Aqueries
detects:
initiates
the
DNS BGCF bearer
a
No
selects
the
SIP
SIP
DNS
MGCF
signalling
invitation
interworking
URL
another
forinassigned
the
thetel
between
including
to
URL.
breakout
BGCF,
interworking
theDNS
E.164
perhaps
RTP/IP
network
the
returns
number.
between
E.164
in
anda
5 7. INVITE
the bearer
number
The
negative
another
SIP and
call the
network
of
ismatch.
used
routedinto
4 6. INVITE the
subscriber
a
BICC/ISUP
home
PSTN BGCF.
network
in
B. PSTN
15. OK
3. INVITE 14. OK 8. INVITE 11. IAM
I-CSCF S-CSCF BGCF MGCF
16. OK 13. OK 12. ANM
2. INVITE 17. OK 9. ADD 10. RESP

Visited A
P-CSCF MG

1. INVITE 18. OK
GGSN
SGSN
Radio Access Network

A Calls B (CS Subscriber)


A

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Interfaces
of IMS Home IMS
Network
CSE(SCP) SIP Application
Servers

ISC
OSA Application
Server

Sh
IM-SSF OSA-SCS
Sh
ISC ISC SIP
HSS Cx
Diameter
Cx Mi BGCF
IP
TDM
Mw
Mw
SS7
P-CSCF Mr S-CSCF
I-CSCF
Mg

Gi MRF Mw

MGCF T-SGW
MGW
Gi
ISUP/BICC

GGSN

Home Access
Network
Visited IMS
Network P-CSCF
PSTN
PLMN

Internet GGSN Visited Access


IP networks Network

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End-to-End QoS and Policy
Enforcement Architecture

Control P-CSCF
Plane SIP UA S-CSCF
PDF

The terminal also The Go interface provides the


provides the link link between the control plane
between the two and the bearer plane in the
Terminal planes. network.

Bearer
Plane Bearer GGSN

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Policy Control

(4) Generate QoS (3) Forward token to (1) Generate QoS


parameters terminal parameters
(2) Generate
(0) P-CSCF receives
Authorisation token
‘final ‘SDP
NOTE: When the service is
IMS
renegotiated, the approval
P-CSCF
Control
SIP UA S-CSCF
process as described above is
Plane PDF
repeated in its entirety with new
resource allocations.
(5) Request PDP (8) Authorise
activation with token resources.
Terminal

(9) Authorise
UMTS PDP activation
Control Session
GGSN
Plane Manager

(10) Commence
policing of traffic
(6) Determine PDF.
(7) Req authorisation
from PDF.

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