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18BCM507 , 2 YEAR
Introduction :
1. Biometric Systems are automated methods of verifying or
recognizing the identity of a living person on the basis of some
physiological characteristics, like a fingerprint or face pattern, or
some aspects of behavior, like handwriting or keystroke patterns.
Types of biometrics

1. Facial recognition.

2. Fingerprints.

3. Finger geometry (the size and position of fingers).

4. Iris recognition.

5. Vein recognition.

6. Retina scanning.

7. Voice recognition.

8. DNA matching.
• biometric system based on physiological characteristics is more reliable than one which
adopts behavioral features, even if the latter may be easier to integrate within certain
specific applications.

•Identity verification (or simply verification) requires the person to declare his/her identity,
for instance by means of a PIN (personal identification number); the system directly matches
(1:1) the person's current biometric characteristic with a previously acquired one which is
retrieved through the PIN.

•Identification requires the system to scan a set of candidates, and decide whether one of
them matches the person to be identified. Obviously, this is a more difficult task since it
requires a (1:N) match which can be computationally very expensive on large database.
As an example, biometrics are used in:
•Law enforcement- In systems for criminal IDs such as fingerprint or palm print authentication systems.
•Border control- In systems for electronic passports which stores fingerprint data, or in facial recognition
•Healthcare- In systems such as national identity cards for ID and health insurance programs which
may use fingerprints for identification.
1. General definition of biometrics
Biometric characteristics are unique, personal characteristics that can be used to establish
a person’s identity. Unlike pass cards, keys and passwords, for example, the physical
characteristics that can be used for biometric solutions cannot be transferred, or cannot be
transferred easily, from one person to another. They are also not susceptible to fraud like
photos and signatures. It is impossible for them to be removed.
The advantages of biometrics for identification
There are two advantages of biometrics when it comes to questions of security or access. Firstly, it is a
convenient technology: there is no need to remember anything or carry anything with you. Secondly, a
high level of security is achieved: identification on the basis of biometric characteristics is much less
susceptible to fraud.
In the area of identification biometrics offer an additional advantage. As the characteristics concerned
are specific to the individual, there is little or no chance of identity fraud.
Combined strength! Biometrics are frequently used in combination with conventional identification
methods, giving you greater confidence that you are dealing with the right person.

Possession or knowledge or biometrics? All three combined = super-strong security!

To date, ‘possession’(e.g. a passport or pass card) and ‘knowledge’e.g. a password or PIN code) have
always been the main methods used to establish a person's identity and ensure security. In order to
increase security still further, combinations of the two have existed for some time now (e.g. a pass card
with PIN code). Biometric security is not just an alternative to these traditional forms of identification, but
allows an extremely high level of security to be achieved by combining all three forms.