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Hydrocracking

Hydrocracking
• It is a cracking process in presence of hydrogen.
• The feedstocks are not suitable for catalytic cracking because
of their high metal, sulfur, nitrogen, and asphaltene contents.
• The process can also use feeds with high aromatic content.
• Products from hydrocracking processes lack olefinic
hydrocarbons.
• The product slate ranges from light hydrocarbon gases to
gasolines to residues.
• The process could be adapted for maximizing gasoline, jet
fuel, or diesel production.
Feedstock
• Heavier stocks having high sulfur, nitrogen and
heavy metal (Ni, V)
• Hydrocracking processes uses a wide variety
of feed stocks like naphtha, atmospheric gas
oil, vacuum gas oils, coke oils, catalytically
cracked light and heavy cycle oil, cracked
residue.
Difference between catalytic and
hydro cracking
Catalyst
• Bifunctional noble metal containing zeolites are used.
• This promote carbonium ion formation.
• Catalysts with strong acidic activity promote
isomerization.
• The hydrogenation-dehydrogenation is promoted by
catalysts such as cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten,
vanadium, palladium, or rare earth elements.
• Catalytic cracking, the main reactions occur by
carbonium ion and beta scission, yielding two
fragments that could be hydrogenated on the catalyst
surface.
Hydrotreatment (Pretreatment)
Hydrocracking
• The first-step is formation of a carbocation over the
catalyst surface:

• The carbocation rearrange, eliminate a proton to


produce an olefin, or crack at a beta position to yield
an olefin and a new carbocation.
One stage
Two Stage
Various operating parameters
affecting hydrocracking

• Reaction temperature
• Hydrogen partial pressure
• Hourly feed velocity of the feed
• Hydrogen recycle ratio
Effect of Feedstock
• Higher content of aromatic
hydrocarbons requires higher pressure
and higher hydrogen/feed ratio, the
lowest possible temperature and a
higher hydrogen consumption of
hydrogen and the severity of the
process
Effects of Feed Impurities
• Hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen compounds and
aromatic molecules present in the feed affect the
hydrocracking reactions. Increase in nitrogen
result in lower conversion.
• Ammonia inhibits the hydrocracking catalyst
activity, requiring higher operating temperatures.
• Polymeric compounds have substantial inhibiting
and poisoning effects. Polynuclear aromatics
present in small amount in the residue deactivate
the catalyst.
• Ammonia inhibits the hydrocracking catalyst
activity, requiring higher operating
temperatures
• Polymeric compounds have substantial
inhibiting and poisoning effects. Polynuclear
aromatics
• present in small amount in the residue
deactivate the catalyst
Summary
Summary
References

• Hydrocracking – Industrial Processes by


Gavin P. Towler and Richard K. Hoehn
(2002) Wiley publisher.
• Hydrocracking in Petroleum Processing
by Maureen Bricker, Vasant Thakkar and
John Petri (2015) Springer Publisher