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CHAPTER 4

Define disease

A disease is an abnormal
condition of body or mind that
causes discomfort , difficulty
to function or stress to an
individual.
4.1
INFECTIOUS DISEASE
• Caused by infection of pathogens directly
through mediums and vectors.
• Example : flu , ringworm,malaria fever
• A disease that can be transmitted from one
individual to another.

* What are other examples of infectious


disease?
Non-infectious disease
• Caused by genetic factor or _______________
• A disease that cannot be transmitted from
one individual to another.
Infectious diseases
are spread by
pathogens
transmitted from an
infected person
(host) to another
person through
VECTORS and
mediums such as
WATER, AIR , and
CONTACT.
Airborne diseases

Droplet Dust
transmission transmission

Pathogen-containing droplet sprays


Bacteria in the spit (saliva) of an
from the mouth and nose of an
infected person dry up and form
infected person sneezing,
spores which are spread together
coughing,talking , yawning or
with the dust in the air.
breathing

Ways of transmission of airborne diseases

Example of diseases that can be spread through air are


tuberculosis, flu, SARS , H1N1 and chicken pox
Waterborne diseases
• Infection through water usually happens in
areas with inadequate water supply and poor
sanitation.

Example of diseases that are


transmitted through water
include cholera and typhoid.
Infections of diseases through contact
Example of diseases that are transmitted
through contact are:
i- ringworm and tinea (caused by fungi)
ii-syphilis and gonorrhoe (spread through
sexual intercourse)
iii-AIDS
(caused by HIV virus that can be transmitted
through sexual intercourse, blood as well as
exposure to syringe –sharing among patients
or drug addicts)
Infections of diseases through vectors
• Some pathogens are transmitted from one host to
another new host through animals. Animals that
transmit these pathogens are called vectors.

Vector Pathogen
Fly Salmonella typhi
Vector Pathogen
Aedes mosquito Dengue virus

Vector Pathogen
Cockroach Salmonella typhi
How do Vectors Spread Diseases?
• Mosquitoes and flies are two vectors that
spread numerous infectious diseases.
• Construct I think map to describe how these
vectors spread diseases :
• (a) Mosquito
• (b) Fly
MOSQUITO

1.
A mosquito that already has
pathogens in its salivary
glands sucks the blood of an
uninfected person

2.
3. The mosquito secretes
Another mosquito that saliva when sucking
bites the infected the blood to prevent
person transmits the blood clotting . The
diseases to another infection spreads
victim. throughout the body
of the person.
FLY

1.
A fly that lands on dirt
has pathogen on its leg
and body.

3. 2.
The pathogens enter
The fly transmits
the body of the
person who eats the
the pathogens to
contaminated food. the food.
The mechanism to Prevent the Spread
of Infectious Diseases
Primary stage Secondary stage Tertiary stage

• Improving health • Determining • Controlling vector


• Strengthening the transmission of populations
body’s defence infections through • Protecting hosts
system active and passive
• Frequent health case detection
check- ups • Giving early
• Maintaining a treatment to
balanced diet patients
• Separating
patients from
others
4.2 BODY DEFENCE
- Pathogens enter the body through the :
• Respiratory system
• Digestive system
• Excretory system
• Skin
- Pathogens need to be destroyed by the body.
- Our body has a strategy to defend itself
against infections.
4.2 Body Defence Mechanism
(Figure 4.4, page 82 and 83)
Let’s watch this video :
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gcSm38tu2zM
Importance of Immunisation

Immunisation Vaccine

• An effort to stimulate the • A vaccine contains antigens


body defence against obtained from a part or the
infections in babies,children whole structure of a
and adults by injecting weakened or dead virus or
vaccines. bacterium.
• http://www.infosihat.gov.my
Type of immunity
Immunity – refers to ability of an organism to defend itself
against infection by pathogen.
Immunity

Active Passive
Our body has to produce Our body has to get
the antibody antibody from another
sources
Natural Artificial
-after - injection of Natural Artificial
recovered vaccine -from mother to - injection of
from illness foetus / breastfeeding antiserum
GRAPH OF ACTIVE NATURAL IMMUNITY
GRAPH OF ACTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY
GRAPH OF PASSIVE NATURAL IMMUNITY
GRAPH OF PASSIVE ARTIFICIAL
IMMUNITY
STRONG IMMUNE SYSTEM
Exposure
to
PESTICIDES

Causes that
Exposure
weaken the
to polluted Stress
immune
air
system

Excessive
intake of
sugar
Practises that strengthen the
immune system

Not smoking
Getting Doing
and no
enough periodic
exposure to Exercising
sleep and health
cigarette
rest examination
smoke