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What are Hydraulic Structures?
• A hydraulic structure is a structure submerged or partially
submerged in any body of water, which disrupts the natural flow of
• They can be used to divert, disrupt or completely stop the flow.
• Hydraulic structures may also be used to measure the flow of
water. When used to measure the flow of water, hydraulic
structures are defined as a class of specially shaped, static devices
over or through which water is directed in such a way that under
free-flow conditions at a specified location (point of measurement)
a known level to flow relationship exists.
• Hydraulic structures are used in storm water
management systems to ensure the long-term
integrity of drainage facilities and to protect the
environment by controlling the direction and velocity
of channelized runoff.
1. Storage Dams

- This is the most common type of dam normally constructed

to store excess flood water which can be utilized later when
demand exceeds the flow in river. The Storage dams may be
constructed for various purposes such as irrigations, water
supply, hydro-power generation, they may be made of
concrete, stone or Earth or rock fill.

Dam is generally most suitable in hilly areas where deep

valleys are available which gives a deep storage of water. The
stored water on its upstream side serves various purposes
such as:
- Flood Mitigation -Irrigation
- Water Supply -Navigation
- Fishery and Wildlife Preservations - Recreation
- Hydro-electric Power Generation
2. Spillways

- Are important auxiliary works of dams, provided to dispose

of surplus floodwater safely which cannot be stored in the
reservoir. Spillways are invariably provided in all dams and
often called safety valve for the dam. It is necessary to
provide a spillway of sufficient capacity so as to avoid water
from overtopping the dam. Overtopping of dam may lead to
failure of dam resulting in serious damage to the property.

• Free Overfall
• Ogee or overflow spillway
• Trough Spillway
• Shaft Spillway
• Side Channel Spillway
• Tunnel Spillway
• Siphon Spillway
• Gatehouse or Outlet Works
3. Gatehouse or Outlet Works

-is a structure housing sluice gates, valves, or pumps ( in

which case it is more accurately called a pumping station).

-A set of outlet works is a device used to release and regulate

water flow from a dam. Such devices usually consist of one or
more pipes or tunnels through.

• Flood Control – flood control outlets are designed for relatively large capacities where
close regulation of flow is less important than are other requirements.

• Navigation – Reservoirs that store water for subsequent release to downstream

navigation usually discharge at lower capacity than flood control
reservoirs, but need for close regulation of the flow is more important.

• Irrigation – The gates or valves for controlling irrigation flows are often basically
different from those used for flood control due to the necessity for close
regulation and conservation of water in arid regions.
4. Diversion Head works

-is a structure constructed across river for the purpose of

raising water level in the river so that it can be diverted into
the off taking canals.

• It raises the water level on its upstream side

• It regulates the supply of water into canals.
• It controls the entry of silt into canals.
• It creates a small pond (not reservoir) on its upstream and
provide some pondage.
• It helps in controlling the vagaries of the river.
5. Culvert

- is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad,

trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side.
Typically embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may
be made from a pipe, reinforced concrete or other material. In
the United Kingdom , the word can also be used for a longer
artificially buried watercourse.
Water Distribution Systems

The purpose of distribution system is to deliver water

to consumer with appropriate quality, quantity and
pressure. Distribution system is used to describe
collectively the facilities used to supply water from its
source to the point of usage.
Requirements of Good Distribution System

• Water quality should not get deteriorated in the

distribution pipes.
• It should be capable of supplying water at all the intended
places with sufficient pressure head.
• It should be capable of supplying the requisite amount of
water during firefighting.
Requirements of Good Distribution System

• The layout should be such that no consumer would be

without water supply, during the repair of any section of
the system.
• All the distribution pipes should be preferably laid one
meter away or above the sewer lines.
• It should be fairly water-tight as to keep losses due to
leakage to the minimum.
Water supply system
-infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment,
storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial
establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as for such public
needs as firefighting and street flushing. Of all municipal
services, provision of potable water is perhaps the most vital.
People depend on water for drinking, cooking, washing, carrying
away wastes, and other domestic needs. Water supply systems
must also meet requirements for public, commercial, and
industrial activities. In all cases, the water must fulfill both
quality and quantity requirements.