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This is what we have learned about human


1.They are voluntary acts.

2.They are accountable acts.
3.The are motivated acts.
4.They are either moral, immoral,
The Meaning of Norms

• A norm is a standard of measurement.

• We make a value judgment when we
measure the quality of a thing.

• The moral qualities of human acts are

measured with the used of a norm or
standard to support a judgment.
The Norms of Morality

• The norms of morality “are the criteria of

judgement about the sorts of a persons we
ought to be and the sorts of actions we
ought to perform” (Richard M. Gula: 1)
Moral norms are the criteria for judging:
1. The quality of character.
2. The quality of n act.
The kind of person we are determine
the kind of action we do. An evil-minded
person will do what is wrong. A well
intentioned person will do what is good.
In this sense, action reflects character.
The word “ought” implies a duty or
• It means that a person or his action
should posses a certain quality or it
falls short of standard.

The phrase “ criteria of judgment”

implies the use of reason in determining
the quality being measured.
Basis of Moral Judgment

1.The Eternal Law

Eternal law is the plan of God in creating
all creatures, both animate and inanimate,
giving to each of them its respective nature.
The Book of Genesis tells the story of
• This account goes on to describe the seven days of creation:
• in the beginning - God started creation
• the first day - light was created
• the second day - the sky was created
• the third day - dry land, seas, plants and trees were created
• the fourth day - the Sun, Moon and stars were created
• the fifth day - creatures that live in the sea and creatures that fly
were created
• the sixth day - animals that live on the land and finally humans,
made in the image of God were created
• by day seven - God finished his work of creation and rested,
making the seventh day a special holy day.
The concept of Eternal law in inferred
from the order and harmony in the created
the ancient Greeks referred to the
universe as “cosmos” (beauty) and spoke of
“cosmic order”.
Basis of Moral Judgment

2. The Natural Law

refers to the operational tendencies of
the human nature- the chemical, biological,
physiological, and rational properties of man
as an organism.
Characteristics of Natural Law

1. It is universal- because it is the human

nature which is shared by all men, though
realized differently according to their
respective cultures.
Characteristics of Natural Law

2. It is obligatory-because the tendencies of

our human nature are the laws of our desire
and actuations which we cannot ignore
without dire consequences.
Characteristics of Natural Law

3. It is recognizable-because man, being

self-reflexive, is aware of his nature, of what
he is capable of and what is expected of him
by his own kind.
Characteristics of Natural Law

4. It is immutable and unchangeable-

because, although change is rule of life,
human nature in its essentiality and
substantiality remains permanent and
Basis of Moral Judgment

3. Conscience
conscience is the choice of particular
good in a given situation. People refer to
conscience as “the voice of God”- a whisper
of admonition.
Conscience is “judgment of reason”
because it derives from our understanding of
what ought to be done as good and what
ought to be avoided.
Types of Conscience

1. Correct conscience- sees the good as

good, the evil as evil. Correct conscience
comes from enlightenment, from refined
moral sensibility, or from habit of doing. The
correct conscience is the result of sound
upbringing, education, good habits, and
intelligent laws.
Types of Conscience

2. Erroneous conscience- sees evil as

something good. Erroneous conscience comes
from malice, ignorance, bad habits, and bad
Types of Conscience

3. Doubtful conscience- is a vacillating

conscience, unsure of itself.
Types of Conscience

4. Scrupulous conscience- is overly cautious,

meticulous, and fearful of committing a
Types of Conscience

5. Lax conscience- is indifferent, unmindful

of right or wrong.
Compulsory Conscience

• “Our bond with the natural moral law”

When conscience operates in the realm of
truth and sound reason, it is compulsory to listen
it. It is only when conscience urges us to act
according to out rational insights that is aptly the
“voice of God”. But when conscience deviates
from the norm and urges us to do what is
reasonable, it is “our own evil work”
Conformity and Non-conformity

• The conformity or non-conformity of a

human act with the norms constitutes

• Example:
• A decent and honorable person do what is
Conformity and Non-conformity

• The same may be said of evil actions. Some

actions do not fit the dignity and nobility of man
as man.

• Example:
• Like junk foods does not fit the health of a person.
• Immoral acts do not fit the human soul.
Formal and Material Norms

Formal norms
relate to formation of character, what
kind of person we ought to be. This is consist
of such directiveness towards character
Formal and Material Norms

Material norms
relate to actions, what actions we ought
to do.