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SUBMITTED TO : MA'M ZAINAB SHERAZI

SUBMITTED BY: IQRA ANWAR


TOPIC: CONTENT SELECTION AND CONTENT
ORGANIZATION IN CURRICULUM
SUBJECT: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN
SCIENCE EDUCATION
PROGRAMME: B.Ed(1.5 SCIENCE) 1st
DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION
Definition of curriculum

What is Curriculum?
“All the learning which is planned and
guided by the school, whether it is
carried on in groups or individually,
inside or outside the school.”
Elements of Curriculum

Aims and objectives


Content
Evaluation
Teaching Strategies
Definition of Content

Content is defined as
“Information to be learned in school,
another term for knowledge (a collection
of facts,concepts, generalization,
principles,theories)”
Curriculun Content

“Content must take account of the


environment in which the course will be used,
the needs of the learners, and principles of
teaching and learning”

Nation(1996)
Purposes of Content
To help organize material
To help a sequential relationship of material
To present material basic to a general
understanding of a course
To furnish a source of valuable information
To present application
Criteria for Content Selection
1) Self-sufficiency:
According to scheffler(1970) the prime
guiding principle for the content selection is helping the
learners to attain maximum self sufficiency in learning
but in the most economical manner.
students are active
content has to be friendly in nature
The content becomes a source of creativness in
students
Criteria conti...
2) Significance:
It is significant if
When content will contribute to basic ideas,
concepts, principles and generalization to achieve
the overall aim of the curriculum.
It will develop learning abilities, skills, processes
and attitude.
Criteria conti...

Significance
it will develop the cognitive,effective and
psychomotor skills of the learners.
The cultural aspects will be concidered.
Criteria conti..
3) Relevance to life
 Learning experience must be related to the
learner's real life situations in and out of school.
4) Validity
 It relates to the authenticity of the content
selected,
this refers to the relevance of the stated learning
experience to the stated goals of curriculum.
Criteria conti...
4) Validity
 It means two things,Is the content related to the
objectives,and is the content true or authentic.
5) Interest
 The content should suit the personality and
intellectual capabilities of the students.
 Is the content interesting to the learner? Or can the
content be made interesting to learners?
Criteria conti...
6) Utility
 It is concerned with the usefulness of the
content. Here the question is weather the content
selected is useful i.e. will lead to the acquisition of
skills and knowledge that are considered useful by
society?
 Is the content selected such that learners can
learn and understand given their present level.
Criteria conti..
7) Learn ability-
 To make education a meaningful experience the
content of curriculum should be relevant to context.
 It sould help students for achieving goals.
Students should be concidered as subject rather than an
objects.
Content must have a variety to justify itself.
Criteria conti..
8) Feasibility
content will only be feasible if
it is goal achievable
it increase the chances of success
it improves economy of time and efforts
it reduce stress
it facilitate communication and coordination.
Some conciderations that may be used
in selection of the learning content
content can be selected for use if these are:
Frequently or commanly used in daily life
Suited to the maturity levels and abilities of
students
Valuable in meeting the needs and the
competencies of a future career
relate with other subject area
important in transfer of learning
Procedures for content selection
There are four procedures used for content
selection:
1) Judgmental Procedure
2) Experimental Procedure
3) Analytical Procedure
4) Concensual Procedure
Procrdure conti..
1) Judgmental Process
The curriculum worker's judgment hardly leads to the best
selection of subject matter.
The most “objective” selection of content by this
procedure requires that his interests,knowledge,and
ideals rise above special social groups.
In short,this procedure is more than any other method of
content selection-demands broad social vision.
Phases of Judgmental procedure
what social and educational objectives should be
accepted?
 What is the existing state of affairs in which these
objectives are concidered desireable and
appropriate, and in which they must be realized?
What subject matter best satisfies these objectives
under the existing condition?
2)Experimental Procedure
 Checking the result against the hypothesis to find
whether or not the hypothesis is true.
Tentative selection of subject matter in accordance
with a criterion.
 Prescribed conditions of the try-out (description of
children, teacher, classroom, methods of teaching,
materials to b e used and other factors affecting the
experiment).
Procedures cont. ...
2)Experimental Procedure

Objective tecniques for determining the result


Checking the result against the hypothesis to
find whether or not the subject matter satisfies
the criterion.
Procedures cont. ...
3)Analytical Procedure
Most widely known method of the content selection
Closely identified with the criterion of utility,
although it has been used with other criterion .
In general it consist of the analysis of the things
people do in order to discover the subject matter
funtioning in these activities.
The analysis to determine the generally useful
knowledge and skills.
Procedures cont. ...
Techniques of Analytical Procedure
Interviewing
Working on the job
Analysis of the job or activity by worker
Questionnaire
Documentry Analysis
Observing the Performance of People
Procedures conti. ...
4)Consensual Procedure
This procedure is a way of collecting people's
opinion about what they believe the curriculum
should be.
The three procedures just described represent
investigations into the content of activity, objects of
interest and conflicts of ideas.
Consensual Procedure
The result of this procedure are expressed in terms
of persons or percent of persons of a particular
community or group who believed that such and
such should be taught in the schol.
Criteria for selection of learning
Experiences
Relevance to aims and objectives---Can it get
results?
Qualitative aspects of the experience---Is it
meaningful?
Appropriateness for students--Are they interesting?
Practicability---Can they be acted upon?
Organization of content
1) Sequencing- it means putting the content and
materials into some sort of order of succession.
it has further two types
Horizontal
Vertical
I. 1)Vertical Sequencing--year to year
prescription
Organization of curriculum
1)Sequencing
I. Vertical-
 It centers on the concepts of sequence and continuity.
It concerned with the longitudinal placement of curriculum
elements.
II. Horizontal-
It is concerned with the concepts of scope and
integration.
That is the side-by-side arrangment of curriculum
elements.
Organization of the content
2) Continuity or progression of content
Content should provide continuity in
learning and prevent loss through forgetting.The
students should be provide experience step by step.
it has further two types
• Linear
• Spiral
Organization of content
1) Linear-
Completing a topic in one class or year and then
starting other in next year or class.
for example
You study digestive system in one class or year
and next year in higher class start a new topic may
be Ciculatory stystem.
Organization of content
2) Spiral-
 one unit on same topic each year with a review
of previous.
 In this type of sequencing same learning activity
is devided into parts and taken up year after year.
For example
 Parts of Digestive system are offered to class II
and process of digestion is explained in class III.
Organization conti..
3) Integratrion-
Learning is more effective when facts and
principles from one field can be related to another,
espacially when applying knowledge.
Development of Instructional Material
Syllabus originate from the content of curriculum.
These are series of headings or topics connected to the
courses leading to examination.
What are the instructional media?
1. Print handouts,study guides,pamphlets etc
2. Visual charts,real objects,photographs etc
3. Audiovisual slides,tapes,multimedia etc
4. Static or display chalkboard,cloth board,feltboard etc
Development of instructional material
Using prescribed syllabus of curriculum as framework
following instructional material is developed:
Textbook
Manual for daily work or experimentation
kits usually comprises charts, models, tools, apparatus,
equipment and materials etc.
Teacher guides
THANKYOU

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