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ARCHEOLOGICAL

ACHIVEMENTS DURING THE


SULTANTE PERIOD
BY:
OMSAI,AAYUSH,HARSHITA,
SWASTI,MANN,SAMYAK
WHAT IS ARCHEOLOGY?

✣ Archeology is the study of past using the


historical remains.
✣ Archeology is very important and very useful
to us.
✣ Through archeology we get to know about
the past.
✣ Thus if archeology wouldn’t have exist it
would be impossible to study about the past.
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INTRODUCTION

✣ Delhi became an important city only in the 12th


century.
✣ Delhi first became the capital of the kingdom
under the Tomara Rajputs.
✣ Coins minted here called Dehliwal had a great
circulation
✣ The Delhi Sultans built many cities in the area
that we now know as Delhi
✣ Archeologists may have found coins (Dehliwal)
and read many manuscripts and got remains of
Tomara Rajputs
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MONUMENTS

Archeologists found many monuments such as:

Tomb of Firuz Shah Alai Darwaza


Tughluq Tomb of Iltutmish
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FINDING ABOUT THE DELHI
SULTANS

✣ Inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of


information, especially valuable are “histories”, tarikh
(singular) / tawarikh (plural), written in Persian.
✣ The language of administration under the Sultanate
was Persian.
✣ Authors of Tawarikh were learned man.
✣ Secretaries, administrators, poets and
courtiers,recounted events and advised rulers on
governance, emphasizing the importance of just rule.
✣ Archeologists may have read manuscripts to find out
about Tawarikhs and these
5 might be written in Persian
TARIKHS AND TAWARIKHS

✣ The authors of Tawarikhs generally lived


in cities and wrote their histories for
Sultans in hope of rich rewards.
✣ These authors advised rulers on the need
to preserve an “ideal” social order based
on birthright and gender distinctions.

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GENDER DISTICTIONS
✣ In 1236 Sultan Iltutmish daughter, Raziyya, became
Sultan.
✣ Minhaj-i Siraj, recognized that she was more able and
qualified than all her brothers but he thought that the
queen’s rule went against the ideal social order created
by God, in which women were supposed to be
subordinate to men.
✣ She was dethroned in 1240
✣ In her inscription she wrote that another name
Rudramadevi changed her name and ruled and
pretended that she was a man.
✣ Archeologists might have7 read the biography of
FROM GARRISON TOWN TO EMPIRE THE
EXPANSION OF THE DELHI SULTANATE
✣ The Sultans seldom controlled the hinterland of the
cities and were therefore depend upon trades, tribute
or plunder for supplies.
✣ The state was also challenged by Mongol invasions
from Afghanistan
✣ The first set of campaigns along the “internal frontier”
of the Sultanate aim at consolidation the hinterland of
the garrison town.
✣ During these campaigns forests were cleared in the
Gang – Yamuna dab and hunter – gatherers and
pastoralists expelled from their habitat.
✣ Archeologists may have found the trade or plunder
items from their hinterlands.
✣ They also might have found remains of trees in the
8
Ganga-Yamuna Doab and any evidences of Mongol
FROM GARRISON TOWN TO EMPIRE THE
EXPANSION OF THE DELHI SULTANATE

✣ The second expansion occurred


along the “external frontier” of the
Sultanate.
✣ In the campaign they took the
elephants,horses,slaves and precious
metals.
✣ The campaign started during the
period of Allaudin Khalji and ended in
the period of Muhammad Tughluq
✣ Archeologists might have read
The Masjid
✣ A mosque is called a masjid in Arabic,
literally a place where a Muslim
prostrates in reverence to Allah.
✣ Muslims read their prayers (namaz)
together in congregational
mosques(masjid i jama).
✣ The Delhi Sultans built several
mosques in cities all over the
subcontinent. These demonstrated their
claims to be protectors of Islam and
Muslims. 10
ADMINISTRATION AND CONSOLIDATION
UNDER THE KHALJIS AND TUGHLUQS

✣ The early Delhi Sultans, paticularly Iltutmish, favoured their


special slaves purchased for military service, called bandagan in
Persian as governors and administrators.
✣ The Khaljis and Tughluqs continued to use bandagan and also
raised people of humble birth, who were often their clients, to
high political positions. They were appointed as generals and
governors.
✣ New Sultans had their own servants. As a result the accession of
a new monarch often saw conflict between the old and the new
nobility.
✣ Archeologists may have found and read manuscripts in which it
11
would be mentioned about the fights about the old and new
ADMINISTRATION AND CONSOLIDATION
UNDER THE KHALJIS AND TUGHLUQS

✣ The patronage of these humble people by the Delhi Sultans


also shocked many elites and the authors of Persian tawarikh
criticised the Delhi Sultans for appointing the “low and base-
born” to high offices.
✣ the Khalji and Tughluq monarchs appointed military
commanders as governors of territories of varying sizes. These
lands were called iqta and their holder was called iqtadar or
muqti.
✣ Muqtis were to lead military campaigns and maintain law and
order in their iqtas.
✣ Archeologists may have found and read manuscript in which it
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would be mentioned about the caste discrimination
ADMINISTRATION AND CONSOLIDATION
UNDER THE KHALJIS AND TUGHLUQS

✣ The muqtis collected the revenues of their


assignments as salary and paid their soldiers from
these revenues.
✣ Accountants were appointed by the state to check the
amount of revenue collected by the muqtis and care
was taken that the muqti collected only the taxes
prescribed by the state.
✣ Under Allaudin Khalji the state brought the
assessment and collection of land revenue under its
own control.
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CHIEFTAINS AND THEIR FORTIFICATIONS

✣ Ibn Battuta, a traveller from Morocco, explained that


chieftains sometimes:
✣ Fortified themselves in mountains, in rocky, uneven
and rugged places as well as in bamboo groves.
✣ In India the bamboo is not hollow; it is big.
✣ Its several parts are so intertwined that even fire
cannot affect them, and they are on the whole very
strong.
✣ Archeologists may had found and read the chronicle of
Ibn Battuta in which he would
14 have mentioned about
MONGOL ATTACKS

✣ Mongol attacks on the Delhi Sultanate


increased during the reign of Allaudin Khalji
and in the early years of Muhammad
Tughluq’s rule
✣ This forced the two rulers to mobilise a large
standing army in Delhi which posed a huge
administrative challenge.
✣ Archeologists may have found manuscripts in
which it would be mentioned
15 about the
The Sultante in fifteenth and sixteenth
century.

✣ After the Tughluqs, Sayyid and Lodi


dynasties ruler Delhi and Agra until 1526.
✣ This was also the period which saw the
emergence of new ruling dynasties like
Afghans and Rajputs.
✣ Archeologists might have found
manuscripts in which it would be
mentioned about the other dynasties and
evidences of the other
16 dynasties
Thank
You