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MATERIALS SCIENCE

Part of & A Learner’s Guide


ENGINEERING
AN INTRODUCTORY E-BOOK
Anandh Subramaniam & Kantesh Balani
Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016
Email: anandh@iitk.ac.in, URL: home.iitk.ac.in/~anandh
http://home.iitk.ac.in/~anandh/E-book.htm

Understanding Stress & Strain


In these brief set of slides we try to get a grasp of tensile, compressive and shear stresses

No strain, no gain! Sorry, this will not help with worldly stresses!!!
What will you learn in this chapter?
 Why stress & strain?
Why not work with loads and elongations? (Which are more easy to comprehend as compared to stress & strain).
 How do forces lead to stresses and strains?
Can stress exist without strain and can strain exist without stress?
 How to ‘physically’ understand stress?
 Understanding stress and strain tensors in terms of their components.
 Hydrostatic and deviatoric components of stress and strain.
 Planes of maximum shear stress (and their role in plasticity).
 Understanding surface stress.
 Residual stress. Microstructural origins of residual stress.

Please revise common types of loading and deformation induced by them first (click here)
Why Stress?  Consider the experiment below in which 3 rods of the same material are
extended by a force ‘P’.
Why Strain?
Same area Case-2
Increase L
Case-1
Increase A
Same length Case-3

 Note that increasing the length (L2 > L1) increases the elongation (2 > 1), while increasing
the area (A2 > A1) decreases the elongation (3 > 1). The load-elongation (P-) curve for
each of these bodies will be different. Clearly load is not a good parameter to characterize
‘what the material experiences’. This load is borne by a larger cross-sectional area in case-3 which decreases the elongation.
 If we define stress (s or ) as load/area (P/A)*, then larger the load bearing area, lower will
be the stress in the material. Stress in case-1 & 2 are the same. Stress in case-3 is lower and
hence the elongation is smaller (as compared to case-1). [* In this 1D example- i.e. elongation is along 1D].
Continued…
 In case-2 the elongation is more (2 > 1). As there is more material along the force.
This implies that elongation is not a good measure of ‘how the elongation feels to the
material’.
If we define strain (e or )* as change in length by original length
[(Lfinal  Linitial)/Linitial] = L/L0 ,
then we will observe that strain in case-1 and case-2 is the same (i.e. 1/L1 = 2/L2).
 If we plot the load-elongation (P-) curves for the samples (cases), we will have 3 plots (for
linear elastic materials these will be straight lines).
 The slope of these curves is a structure/geometry dependent property called stiffness.
 If on the other hand we plot stress-strain (s-e or -) curves, we will get one master curve
and the slope of this curve will be an inherent material property the Young’s (or elastic)
modulus.
 Stress is the internal response of a material to externally applied loads.
Note:
• Both stress and strain are
defined at each point in the
material. In the stated
example, they are average
stress and strain.
• In general stress and strain
are second order tensors
Replot as - curve (with 9 components in 3D).

* Actually this is the definition of Engineering strain (e). But, if the strain is small e ~  (i.e. is approximately equal numerically to the true strain).
Stress and Strain
 In normal life we are accustomed to loads/forces and displacements.
These are most appropriate variables when one talks about ‘point masses’,
‘rigid bodies’ or is sitting outside a body.
A
 Inside a body (typically a deformable body with mass and extent), one can locate other
(appropriate) ‘field variables’ to describe the state of the system. E.g. inside a
gas kept in a cylinder, instead of tracking the velocities of the molecules, A’
we come up with a field variable called pressure, which describes the
momentum transferred by these molecules per unit area per unit time
(pressure is a ‘time averaged’ macroscopic quantity). 
 To understand the above point let us consider the ‘pulling’ of a body in
tension (figure to right). Assume there is a weak plane (AA’), the two
sides of which can slip past one another. We note as in the graphic that the
inclined plane ‘shears’ even though we applied tensile forces. That is the
plane feels shear stresses ().
 Hence, when we apply only tensile forces to the body (in the simple example
considered), ‘certain field’ develops within the body, which depending on the

orientation of the plane in the body (or a unit volume being considered) can*
undergo shear and/or dilatation.
 This field is the stress field and is a second order tensor with 9
components in general in 3D (4 in 2D). * It may so happen that some planes do not feel any shear stresses
(like the horizontal and vertical planes in in figures)
 Stress in 1D is defined as: Stress = Force/Area. This implies that in 1D stress is a scalar.
Clearly, this is valid in 1D only, where a even a tensor looks like a scalar!!
 Similar to the stress field (which we noted to be the ‘force dependent’ term within the body), we can define a
strain field, which is a ‘displacement dependent’ term. Strain is also a 2nd order tensor with
9 components in general in 3D. Strain in 1D is: Strain = change in length/original length
(usually for small strains). Some ‘general’
constraint
 In summary:
External forces and constraints give rise to a stress field within a body.
Depending on the orientation of a unit element (cube in the figure), the
cube may stretch along one or two directions and/or may shear.
Unit cube

We do not
apply
stresses Some ‘general’
loading

Force Stress
Variables in rigid Variables in
Related variables inside the material
Body Mechanics solid mechanics
Displacement Strain
Funda Check What can happen to a unit volume inside a body on the application of external
loads/forces/constraints?

Contraction/dilation Volume change

What can happen to a


Or a
unit volume in a material combination
when we apply Shear Shape change of these
forces/constraints to the
outside of the body

Rigid body translation/rotation


Position/Orientation change

As such no distortion to the


volume element (but affects
neighbouring elements)
Funda Check Does stress cause strain or does strain cause stress? Can we have ‘stress-free’
strain and ‘strain-free’ stress? How can strain and stress arise in a material?
 First point: stresses can exist without strains (heating a body between rigid walls) and strains
can exist without stresses (heating a unconstrained/free-standing body).
 What we are asking here is which came first (something like the proverbial chicken and egg problem!).
 Both situations are possible (at least from a perspective of easy understanding).
 If we load a body and this leads to stress inside the body→ this will lead to strains in a deformable
body. I.e. stress gives rise to strain. Load → Stress → Strain.
 Now if a cubic phase transforms to another cubic phase with a larger lattice parameter (i.e. the
transformation involves volume expansion), we can assume two situations:
1) the transforming material is small and the whole volume transforms (Fig.1a)
2) the transforming volume is small, but now embedded in a matrix (Fig.1b).
 In case (1) above there are no stresses.
In case (2) above the surrounding matrix will try to constrain the expansion, leading to stresses. The
primary causative agent in case (2) is strains (due to phase transformation), which further causes
stresses. Phase transformation→ Strain → Stress.

 It is important to note that in most cases it is strain which is measured experimentally and
converted to stress via stress-strain relations involving material properties.

Fig.1b: Strains with stresses


Fig.1a: Strains but no stresses
(dilatation during phase transformation)
Funda Check How can strain and stress arise in a material?

 Some of the origins of stress and strain we have already seen in the previous slide. We consider here a
few more.
 Basically, stress and strain can arise because of: (i) external loads/constraints/effects, (ii) internal
loads/constrains/effects & (iii) other stimuli (via ‘cross-coupling coefficients’).
 Among external factors, heating (leading to an increased ‘T’) is an important one. Phase
transformation, which in itself can be caused by ‘T’, ‘P’, etc., is an important internal ‘effect’.
 Other stimuli can also lead to stress/strain. Paramagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering (say on cooling),
can lead to strain in materials with a strong spin-lattice coupling. The strain induced by magnetization
is called magnetostriction and arises due to ‘cross-coupling’ between magnetic and strain parameters.
 In inverse piezo-electric effect, application of an electric fields leads to strain/stress.

External loads/constrains/effects

Basic origins of stress and strain Internal loads/constrains/effects

Other stimuli Magnetic fields, electric fields,...


Via cross-coupling coefficients
Scalar, Vector and Tensor Quantities
 To describe a property at a point inside the material we may require to specify just:  a
number (magnitude of that property like temperature or density),  a magnitude and direction
(i.e. 3 numbers in 3D like for electric field or pyroelectric coefficient) or  even more
numbers. The number of values required is given by 3n in 3D (2n in 2D); where ‘n’ is called
the rank of the tensor.
 To understand why tensors are required let us consider a force ‘F’ (with a F) applied along
the x-axis and ask the question*: “what will happen to the body?”.
 Clearly the information available is insufficient to answer unequivocally. If the forces are
applied as in Fig.1b the body will elongate, while if applied as in Fig.1c the body will shear.
 Hence, we need to specify the plane on which the force is acting. In case in Fig.1b the +F
force is acting on the +x-plane along the +x direction this is written as Fxx. In Fig.1c the
force +F is acting along the +y-plane along the +x direction written as Fyx.
 This implies (in this example of mechanical deformation) two directions are required to specify the force
(and hence determine its effect):
(i) the direction of the plane normal and (ii) the direction of the force.
 A combination of these forces Fxx & Fxy could also be acting on the body.
F Fyx
Note. For tension/compression: +F on +x
F F F face is positive and similarly, F force on x Fig.1c
Fig.1a Fig.1b plane is also positive. For shear: shear
F causing clockwise rotation is positive.
Fxx F
* For now we will assume that other forces are present to give us force and moment balance (i.e. equilibrium condition).
 Also note that force (F) is a vector and we are trying to understand its effect as a prelude to tensors.
Q&A Give examples of axial and polar vectors.

 Polar vectors: Force, Electric field, Polarization.


 Axial vectors: Mechanical moment, Angular momentum, Curl of a polar vector.

Some basic points...


 A scalar does not require a coordinate system to define and hence is independent of the
coordinate axes chosen. We require just one number at each point for a scalar.
 A vector can be represented by its components along a set of coordinate axes.
We require three numbers in 3D at each point to specify a vector.
A change in the coordinate axes system (change in the angle between the basis vectors,
translation/rotation of the basis vectors) will change the components along the axes; but, will
the vector itself will remain unchanged.
 The transformation of a vector (rotation, inversion, mirror, etc.) can be carried out using a
transformation matrix.
 A second rank tensor can also can be represented by its components along a set of coordinate
axes. It can be visualized as a combination of two directions.
We require nine numbers in 3D at each point to specify a second rank tensor.
A change in the coordinate axes system will change the components along the axes; but, will
the tensor itself will remain unchanged.
 The transformation of a second rank tensor can be carried out using two transformation
matrices. We will repeat some of these concepts soon.
Tensors of various ranks
 Tensors can be used to describe:
(i) fields (field tensors) or (ii) properties (property tensors).
 These tensors can belong to various ranks: zeroth rank, first rank, second rank, etc.
 E.g. Temperature field is a scalar field, where each point in space is described by one
number the ‘T’ at that point (T(x,y,z)).
Scalar fields are tensor fields of rank-0. On the other hand some fields require more numbers
to be specified at each point in space.
 Electric field (polar vector) and Magnetic field (axial vector) require three numbers (in 3D)
to be specified at each point. These 3 numbers are the components along the coordinate axes
and give the direction and magnitude of the vector. Such a field is a vector field. Vectors are
tensors of rank-1.
 Some other fields require more numbers to be specified. E.g. to describe the state of stress at
a point, we need 9 numbers (in 3D) in general (stress being a symmetric tensor we actually need only 6 numbers).
Stress is a tensor of rank-2.

Q&A Why do we need coordinate transformations?


 We have already seen (Matrix representation of symmetry operators) that symmetry operators can be written as transformation matrices;
which involve operations like rotation (about a crystallographic axis), inversion (about an inversion centre usually the centre of the unit
cell) and mirror (about a plane usually passing through lattice points are exactly between lattice points).

* Note: only one number needed at each point. If there is a to point to point variation of temperature a set of T have to be specified for each
(x,y,z) which gives rise to the temperature field.
Funda Check What is the order of a tensor? How can we understand force and stress from this
perspective?

 The order of a tensor basically tells us the number of directions involved in describing the
quantity.
 Two types of tensors may be distinguished:
 field tensors (like stress) and  property tensors (like electrical conductivity).
 The direction may be visualized as a vector. The direction itself may be prescribed under Cartesian, polar or other coordinate systems.
The number of basis vectors required to specify the direction will depend on the dimension the direction ‘lives’ in. In 2D we need two
basis vectors and in 3D three basis vectors.
 A scalar (zeroth order tensor) has no directions involved. E.g. density ().
 A vector (first order tensor) requires one direction to be specified. E.g. electric field vector
(E), magnetic field vector (H).
 A second order tensor requires 2 directions to be specified. E.g. stress (ij), strain (ij),
thermal expansion coefficient (ij) .
 Taking this forward, a nth order tensor requires ‘n’ directions for its specification. Examples
of higher order tensors include: piezoelectric coefficient (dijk) and elastic constant (Eijkl).

Order of the Tensor Field Tensor Property Tensor


Equation
0 Energy (E) Density () -

1 Electric Field (Ei) Pyroelectric Coefficient (pi) Pi = pi T

2 Stress Coefficient of thermal expansion (ij) ij = αijT


3 - Piezoelectric Coefficient (dijk) Pi = dijkjk
Let us start by considering some important quantities Examples of some vector and tensor quantities
Quantity Type Acts
Force (Fi) (Polar) vector At a point mass
Torque Pseudo Vector (Axial Vector) About an axis

Traction (Ti) (Polar) Vector On a surface element


Stress (ij) Second order Tensor Acts on a volume element*

 Traction vector is the internal force$ vector on a cross-section divided by the cross-section’s
area. Traction has units of stress (e.g. MPa) but is a vector and not the stress tensor. In a
continuous body the tractions on the opposite internal surface cancel each other.
 Traction and stress may vary with position, orientation and time; i.e., are field quantities
with spatial and temporal variations (next slide).
 Polar vectors reflect in a mirror, axial vectors do not reflect.

 Finternal
T
Area
* With the exception of surface stress
which acts only on the surface.
 $ External force is also called surface
 The scalar component of the normal stress is given by:   T.n tractions.
Funda Check What is the difference between Traction and Stress?

 Sometimes Traction is also called as the stress vector (thus adding to the confusion!).
 Traction is a vector (1st order tensor), while stress is a tensor (2nd order tensor).
 Traction is a measure of the ‘intensity of the force’ and is defined as the force per unit area*
(on a cut plane inside a body). Traction can act in any direction, i.e. need not be parallel to the normal.
 On opposite surfaces created by the cut plane (at a point), the traction vector is equal in
magnitude (but opposite in direction). I.e. at P and P’ (in the Fig.1) the traction vectors are T & T.
 The components of the Traction vector when divided by the unit area gives us the
components of the stress tensor (In Fig.2 a special case is considered for simplicity, wherein
the area normal is along ‘z’ and A is the unit area (shaded yellow)).
 When the cutting procedure is carried out along the 3 orthogonal planes and we compute the
stresses acting, we get the 9 components of the stress tensor.
Tz
 zz 
Note the traction
vector has been
moved to the corner of
the area (actually it
A
should be at P)
Tx
 zx 
A
Fig.1 Ty
 zy 
* Infinitesimal area (i.e. in the limit A0) Fig.2 A
Stress
 Stress is a second order tensor and best understood in terms of its effect on a unit body
(cube in 3D and square in 2D), in terms of its components.
 Stresses can be Compressive, Tensile or Shear (in terms of specific components).
 We may apply forces/constraints and stresses will develop within the material (including the
surface)  we apply forces (or constraints) and not stresses.
 The source of stress could be an external agent (forces etc.) or could be internal
(dislocations, coherent precipitates etc.)  i.e. stresses can exist in a body in the absence of
external agents (residual stress).
 The effect of stress at a particular point in the material is not dependent on how the stress
came about (i.e. could be external or internal factors)  just the components of stress matter
in determining the response of the material.
 We can have stress without strain and strain without stress (ideal circumstances)
 Strain without stress  heat a unconstrained body (it will expand and no
stresses will develop)
 Stress without Strain  heat a body constrained between rigid walls (it will
not be able to expand but stresses will develop).
 In 3D if two of the three principal stresses* are equal it is called cylindrical state of stress
(1 = 2  3) and if all the principal stresses are equal, it is referred to hydrostatic state of
stress (1 = 2 = 3).
 The cause behind the strains can be:  stress  electric field  temperature change, etc.

* Will learn about this soon.


Note: We can apply forces and not stresses- stresses develop within the body

Shear
E.g.
Only shear tends to change
the shape of a body without
changing its volume

Actually this kind of simple shear is disallowed to


due lack of moment balance

In anisotropic crystals it
may do more (may even
shear the crystal)!

Anisotropic crystals
Note: we apply shear force and shear stresses
develop in the interior of the material
Funda Check How do I understand the sign of stress (if compressive or tensile)?

 We will try understand this in 4 pages: Pages 1-4.


 In tensile stress material points want to come towards each other as they have been
stretched from their equilibrium positions.
 In compressive stress the reverse is true material points want to go away from one
another (as they have been compressed as compared to their equilibrium positions).

‘Physical’ Understanding of Stress


Any of these may be used
Method A depending on the situation Method B
Effect on points, lines, surfaces Effect on release of
and volumes in the body constraint
This visualization may or may
not be easy in many situations

Page-1
Method A

Tensile Stress Compressive Stress


Forces on the external surface of a body

Uniaxial compressive stress tends to reduce


Uniaxial tensile stress tends to elongate the
the length of the body (shorten the body)
body

Page-2
Method B
Let us get a physical feel for TENSILE STRESS
2
1
Pull a body of length L0 to new
length L1 and hold it at this length

3
4
Introduce a cut (crack)
in the body

The crack will open up


due to the tensile stress

That is when the constraint is removed points in the body move towards each
other
I.e. under tensile stress the points in a body tend to move towards one another
(while the crack faces move apart)
Page-3 This is because we have increased the interatomic distance over the equilibrium value. !***!
Alternately if the external constraint is removed points in the
body move towards each other
I.e. under tensile stress the points in the body tend to move
towards one another

The reverse will happen under compressive stress:


That is when the constraint is removed points in the body move away from each other
I.e. under compressive stress the points in the body tend to move away one another

Page-4
Funda Check How can tensile and shear stresses arise inside a material?

 Stresses of a particular type can arise inside a material by: (Case-1) Shear or tensile loading,
(Case-2) geometry of loading, (Case-3) orientation of planes within the material.

(Case-1) Shear loading leading to shear stresses (note: focus on the sponge- else it will look like case-2)

Shear stress on the bolt here

(Case-3) Loading is tensile but inclined


planes feel shear.
(Case-2) Geometry of loading leading to
shear stresses (Loads applied are purely tensile).
The Stress (& Strain) Tensors
 Tensors which measure crystal properties (e.g. magnetic susceptibility) have a definite
orientation within a crystal and its components are dictated by the crystal symmetry. These
are Material Property Tensors or Material Property Tensors.
 The stress and strain tensors can have any orientation within a crystal and can even be
defined for amorphous (or isotropic) materials.
 The stress tensor ‘develops’ the material in response to ‘forces’.
 The stress and strain tensors are Field Tensors. On the other hand, the elastic constant is a
Material Property Tensor (4th order, Eijkl).
 (Say) when forces are applied to a body, stress and strain tensor fields develop within the
body.
 In a isotropic materials the direction of principal stresses coincides with the directions of
principal strains.

* The order of a tensor basically tells us the number of directions involved in describing the quantity. A scalar (zeroth order tensor) has no
directions involved. A vector (first order tensor) requires one direction to be specified. A second order tensor like stress, requires 2 directions
to be specified. Taking this forward, a nth order tensor requires ‘n’ directions for its specification.
Understanding stress in terms of its components
 Stress is a Second Order Tensor. (It is a symmetric tensor: ij = ji in usual materials).
 It is easier to understand stress in terms of its components and the effect of the
components in causing deformations to a unit body within the material.
 These components can be treated as vectors.   xx  xy    xx  xy  xz 
 
 Components of a stress: 
 yx  yy   
    
2D (plane stress)  4 components [2  (tensile) and 2  (shear)] yx yy yz
  zx  zy  zz 
3D  9 components [3  (tensile) and 6  (shear)]  
  written with subscripts not equal implies  (shear stress). E.g. xy  xy.
 First index refers to the plane and the second to the direction.
 Close to 2D state of stress (plane stress) can occur in very thin bodies and 2D state of
strain (plane strain) very thick bodies. In plane stress components of stress with ‘z’
coordinates are zero.
 Shear stresses are responsible for plastic deformation in metallic materials (by slip).

 xx
 xx  11 x-plane, x-direction
Also written as x
Direction
 xy   xy   12 x-plane, y-direction

As stress is a symmetric tensor in ‘normal’ materials


Plane  yx   yx   21  
 Let us consider a body in the presence of external agents (constraints and forces), which
causes stresses in the body.
 Stresses are defined at a point and may vary from point to point; but, we consider a ‘sample’ rectangle in 2D or a sample
cube in 3D. This representation helps in visualizing the effect of stress on unit element. The sample region (rectangle or
cube) is shown to be of finite extent for illustration purposes, but should be of infinitesimal extent.
 A unit region in the body (assumed having constant stresses) is analyzed. (body forces are
ignored)

2D
  xx  xy    xx  xy   11 12 
     

 yx  yy  
 yx  yy    21  22 

Note: the directions of the stresses shown are arbitrary


(the stresses in general could be compression/tension
* Note: xx = x and shear could be opposite in sign)
Understanding how stress develops inside a material based on the load applied 2D
 The normal stresses (x & y) tend to elongate the body (the square in the figure below)
→ this will give rise to volume changes.
 The shear stress (xy = yx) will tend to change the shape of the body → without changing its volume.
 Depending on the orientation of the unit volume considered, the stresses acting on its
faces will change.
 A good feel for the same can be got by looking at stress in 2D (plane stress, with 3
independent components).
 We have already noted that even if we apply tensile/compressive forces, shear stresses can develop on inclined planes.
 Stress on one axes set (x, y) can be mapped to stress on another axes (x’, y’) set by the
formulae as below.
 There will always be one unique axis set (x’, y’), wherein the shear stresses are zero. The
corresponding planes are the principal planes and the principal normal stresses are labeled:
1 and 2 (More about this soon).

  x  y    x  y 
 x'     Cos 2   xy Sin2
 2   2 
  x  y    x  y 
 y'     Cos 2   xy Sin2
 2   2 
  x  y 
 x' y'    Sin2   xy Cos 2
 2 
Points to be noted (some of these will be illustrated via figures in coming slides):
 Planes of maximum/minimum normal stress () correspond to zero shear stress (xy = 0)
→ known as the principal planes. The corresponding stresses are the principal stresses
(labeled 1 and 2).
 There exist planes where shear stress is zero. These planes also correspond to extremum in
normal stresses. Planes of extremum shear stress are 45 from planes of zero shear stress
(which correspond to the principal planes).
 The period of the functions is 180 (as above equations are functions of Sine and Cosine
of 2)  the maxima of the functions is separated from the minima by 90. This is
expected: e.g. the stress in +x (xx) is expected to be same as stress in –x (xx).
 Extremum in shear stress occurs midway in angle between extrema in normal stress.
 Shear stress is symmetric, i.e. xy = yx. Minimum value of shear stress = – (Maximum
value of shear stress).

2 xy
1

 max 1   x   y    x   y  2
2 2
Principal
     xy   Tan2 Principal plane  Tan2n 
stresses
 min  2  2   2 
  
 x  y 

  x   y 
1
  x   y  2 2
2
Maximum
shear stress  max       xy   Tan2 Max shear stress plane  Tan2 s 
2 xy
 2  
1
Tan 2 n  
Tan 2 s
Now we will consider special cases of importance
Case-1
 The simplest case can be loading in uniaxial tension.
 For x and y as in the figure below only the vertical and horizontal planes feel no shear stress (every
other plane feels shear stress). This is in spite of the fact that we applied only a tensile force.
 Shear stress is maximum at 45. For xx = 100MPa, |max| = 50 MPa.
 Rotation of 90 implies that x goes to y and y goes to –x (which is same as x).
 The principal stress is the resultant of what we applied → Px (i.e. 1 = 100 MPa).

110
100
=100 MPa 90
80

The above stress state can be thought 70

of arising from a loading as below 60


Normal stresses reaches extremum
50 when shear stress is zero
40

Stress→
30
20
10
0
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

-20 → x
sX
-30 y
sY
-40 xy
tXY
-50
tx+y
-60 Note that every inclined plane feels
shear stress
Case-2
 If we push along one direction (say y) and pull along another direction (say x), with equal magnitude.
(Biaxial ‘push-pull’).
 For x and y as in the figure below the vertical and horizontal planes feel no shear stress. The are the
principal planes and the principal stress are (trivially): 1 = 100MPa, 2 = –100MPa
 Shear stress is maximum at 45 (at this angle both normal stresses are zero).
For xx = 100MPa & yy = –100MPa, |max| = 100 MPa → the shear stress equals the normal stresses in
magnitude (even though we did not apply shear forces)
This implies this ‘push-pull’ configuration gives rise to a higher value of shear stress. This aspect can be
physically visualized as well.
 All stress functions ( & ) are identical and only phase shifted from each other.
110
= –100 MPa Load applied Body 100
90
80
70
60
=100 MPa 50
40
30
20

Stress→
10
The above stress state can be 0
-10 0
thought of arising from a 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
-20
loading as in the figure to right -30
-40
-50
This loading is equivalent of applying
shear stress at planes inclined at 45.
-60 x
sX
-70 y
sY
-80
-90 xy
tXY
Note that (x + y) = 0 for all  -100
→
t x+y
-110
Case-3
 If we pull along one direction (say x) and push along another direction (say y) with lesser force.
 For x and y as in the figure below the vertical and horizontal planes feel no shear stress.
 Shear stress is maximum at 45. For xx = 100MPa & yy = –100MPa, |max| = 75 MPa.
 There are no planes where both normal stresses are zero.

= –50 MPa

=100 MPa
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
Stress→

20
10
0
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
-20
-30
-40
x
sX
-50
-60
y
sY
-70 xy
tXY
-80 tx+y
-90 →
Case-4
 Equi-biaxial tension (2D hydrostatic state of stress).
 All planes feel equal normal stress.
 There is no shear stress on any plane.
 Usual materials (metallic) will not plastically deform (by slip) under this state of stress (in plane i.e.
the planes inclined in the third dimension may experience shear stress, which can lead to plastic
deformation by slip).

= 100 MPa

110
All planes feel equal normal stress

100
=100 MPa
90

80

70

60

Stress→ 50

40

30 x
sX
y
sY
20 All planes feel zero shear stress
xy
tXY
10
→ tx+y
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
-10
Case-5
 Pure shear*: Only shear forces applied. (Can be considered a case for pure shear).
 This leads to a stress state identical to case-2, but with phase shift of 45.
 Though we applied only shear forces, normal stresses develop in all planes except the planes where
shear stresses are maximum.

Load applied
Body

110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20

Stress→
10
0
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
-20
-30
→
=100 MPa -40
-50
-60 x
sX
-70 y
sY
-80
xy
Note that (x + y) = 0 for all  -90 tXY
-100 t x+y
-110
How is pure shear different from simple shear (click here to know more)
Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Components of Stress
 (In metallic materials) Hydrostatic components of stress can cause elastic volume changes
and not plastic deformation.
 Yield stress (of metals) is not dependent on the hydrostatic stress. However, fracture stress
(f) is strongly affected by hydrostatic stress.
  xy 
 We understand the concept of hydrostatic and deviatoric stress in 2D first.  ij   xx 
   
 Hydrostatic stress is the average of the two normal stresses. yx yy

( xx   yy )   xx   yy    xx   yy 
  m   xy   0    xy 
 0    m   yy
2D
2 2
 ij   m    
hydrostatic
2     m   xx  
 0 m    xx   yy    xx   yy 
   yx
xy
 0 
Hydorstatic Part Deviatoric part  2   2 
Hydrostatic part Deviatoric part

  xx   yy 
 
 2 

= +   xx   yy 
 
 2 
For only normal loads applied on a rectangular body (equal/zero), what is the
Funda Check increasing order in which there is a propensity to cause plastic deformation?
(Considering only in-plane stresses and plasticity by slip).

Worst for plastic deformation Best for plastic deformation

Fig.B = 100 MPa Fig.A Fig.C = –100 MPa

=100 MPa =100 MPa =100 MPa

pure shear
=

same as
• This is 2D hydrostatic state of • Note if we add +ve yy to uniaxial tension
stress. this is bad for plastic deformation.
• Note: slip can still take place on • Similarly in 3D triaxial (tensile) state of
the planes inclined in the 3rd
dimension
stress is bad for plastic deformation.
• Hence, triaxial state of stress ‘suppresses’
plastic deformation and ‘promotes’ fracture.
=100 MPa

 This reiterates the important point that we already know that, hydrostatic states of stress tend to
cause volume changes, while shear stress tend to cause shape changes.
Mohr’s circle representation of stress
 A nice geometrical way of understanding stress is the Mohr’s circle representation of stress.
 In plane stress condition (2D) the stresses can be written as:
x  y  x  y   x  y  x  y  x  y 
 x'     Cos 2   xy Sin 2  y'     Cos 2   xy Sin2  x' y'     Sin2   xy Cos 2
 2   2   2   2   2 
This can be rearranged as:
 x  y  x  y   y x 
 x'     cos 2   xy  sin 2  x' y'    sin 2   xy  cos 2
 2   2   2 

From this we can get:


2
   x   y  x  y 
2
This is of
 
 x'     2
x' y'      xy
2
( x  a )2  y 2  r 2
  2   2  the form
Which is the equation of a circle with:
    y  
Centre(a,0)   x  ,0
 2  
1
  x   y  2 2
2

Radius   max      xy  
 2  
Features of the Mohr’s circle of stress
 The axes (Coordinates) are: ( x ' , x ' y ' ) . The centre of the circle is always on the x-axis.
 Angle ‘’ in physical element is represented by ‘2’ on Mohr's circle. So 45 on the physical element is 90 in Mohr’s
circle.

 Shear stress causing clockwise rotation in the physical element is plotted as a positive number
(above the horizontal axis).
 Any point on the Mohr's circle gives the magnitude and direction of normal and shear stresses
on any plane in the physical element. The inside of the Mohr’s circle has no physical meaning (only the circumference).
 Traversing along the x-axis gives the two priciple stresses: 1 & 2.
 Points G, H in Fig.1 correspond to planes G and H in the physical element (Fig.2).

Fig.1
Fig.2
Mohr’s circle for various specific cases
 Considering specific cases can help us understand the utility of the Mohr’s circle.
Case-1 Uniaxial tension  Planes A & B are principal planes.
 2 = 0.
 r = (1/2)

P 0
Pij   xx
 0 0 

Case-2 Uniaxial compression  Planes A & B are principal planes.


 1 = 0.
 2 is negative.

 P 0
Pij   xx
 0 0 
Case-3 Equi-biaxial tension  The circle collapses to a point.
(rMohr’s cicle = 0). P 0 
Pij   1 
 2 = 2.
 0 P1
 xy is zero. Pxx  P1
 Since there is no shear stress,
plastic deformation by slip
cannot occur (in-plane).

Case-4 ‘Equi’  Planes A & B are principal planes.


Tension-compression
 2 = 0.
 The Mohr’s circle will look
exactly identical for the case
below of pure shear just that
planes C & D are 45. (Considered in
case-5)

P 0 
Pij   1 
 0  P1
Case-5 Pure Shear  The principal planes are at 45 to
the C & D planes. C & D are the
principal shear planes.

 0 T1 
Pij   

 1T 0 
Generalized Plane Stress
3D state of stress
 In general, a point in a body may exist in a 3D state of stress, wherein the 3 principal
stresses (1, 2, 3) are not equal. The list of possibilities in this context are:
 3 unequal principal stresses (1, 2, 3) → Triaxial state of stress
 2 our of the 3 principal stresses are equal (say 1, 2 = 3) → Cylindrical state of stress
 All 3 principal stresses are equal (say 1 = 2 = 3) → Hydrostatic/spherical state of stress
 One of the 3 principal stresses is zero (say 1, 2, 3 = 0) → Biaxial/2D state of stress
 One of the 3 principal stresses is zero & the remaining two are equal to each other (say 1 = 2, 3 = 0) → 2D hydrostatic state of stress
 Two of the 3 principal stresses is zero (say 1, 2 = 3 = 0) → Uniaxial state of stress.
 We can start with the state of stress on an unit cube and observe the state of stress as the
orientation of the cube is changed (by rotation in 3D) or we can look at an inclined plane
with direction cosines l (=Cos), m (=Cos), n (=Cos). This is akin to the square we used in 2D and rotate it about the
z-axis.
Planes which experience maximum shear stress/no shear stress
 Plastic deformation by slip is caused by shear stress (at the atomic level). Hence, we would
like to identify planes of maximum shear stress.
 For uniaxial tension, biaxial hydrostatic tension, triaxial hydrostatic tension, etc., we try to
identify planes experiencing maximum shear stress.
= 100 MPa
Biaxial hydrostatic tension
=100 MPa Same in magnitude
=1 But yielding can =100 MPa
Uniaxial tension take place due to
planes inclined in
2 
1   
the third dimension
1  0
These planes
 2  which fell shear
feel no stresses
shear stress These planes
(0kl) type feel maximum
=1
shear stress

   
2   1  2   1 
 2   2 

These planes
feel maximum =1
shear stress
 2 3 
1   
These planes feel  2 
  3  0
3   1  no shear stress
 2  (hk0) type  1   3   1   2 
2    3   
 2   2 
Triaxial hydrostatic tension ‘Push-pull’ normal stresses

= 1 = 3

No plane feels  1 
any shear stress 1    
= 1 = 2
 2

1   2   3  0 These planes
feel shear stress

 
2   1 
 2 

These planes feel


maximum shear stress
twice the other planes (above)

  1  ( 1 )  2 1
3   
 2  2
Surface Stress
Surface Stress
 Surface is associated with surface energy (see topic on Surface Energy and Surface
Tension).
 Hence a body wants to minimizes its surface area. In the process surface atoms want to
move towards each other.
 The surface of a body (say a liquid) is under tensile stress (usual surfaces are under tensile stress, under
some circumstances (e.g. polar surfaces) can be under surface compression).
 As the molecules of water want to come towards one another (to minimize surface area) the
stress has to be tensile.
 This can also be understood by releasing a constraint as in coming slides (as before).
Consider a soap film held between fixed sliders

At a section AB in the film the surface tension


forces balance the reaction of the slider

If a constraint is removed then the film will tend to shrink as


the points want to move towards each other  the surface is
under tension
Residual Stress
Residual stress What is ‘residual stress’ and how can it arise in a material (/component)?
 The stress present in a material/component in the absence of external loading/forces or
constraints (i.e. in a free-standing body) is called residual stress.
 Residual stress can ‘be’ in the macro-scale or micro-scale and can be deleterious or
beneficial depending on the context (diagram below).
 Residual stress may have multiple origins as in the diagrams (next slide).
 We have already noted that residual stress is an important part of the definition of
microstructure (it can have profound impact on properties).

Based on scale Macro-scale Macro-strain


Residual Corresponding
Stress strains will be

Micro-scale Micro-strain

• Residual stress can be beneficial (+) or detrimental (–)


• E.g.
  Stress corrosion cracking
 + Residual Surface Stress (e.g. in toughened glass)
Unlike a void or a crack, a dislocation is naturally associated with residual stresses.
A crack or a void only amplify far field stresses.
Microstructure

Residual
Phases + Defects + Stress • Vacancies
• Dislocations
• Vacancies Defects • Voids
• Dislocations • Cracks
• Twins
Phase Transformation & reactions
• Stacking Faults
• Grain Boundaries
• Voids
• Cracks Thermal origin • Mismatch in coefficient of thermal
expansion

• Thermal
Physical properties • Magnetic
• Ferroelectric
Residual
Origins/Related to
Stress
Geometrical entities
Residual stresses due to an edge
dislocation in a cylindrical crystal

Plot of x stress contours

Due to phase transformation

Residual stresses due to an coherent precipitate


+ 2.44
All values are in GPa
+ 1.00

+ 0.67

+ 0.33

0.00

− 0.33
Due to a dislocation Stress state (plot of y) due to a coherent -Fe precipitate
(a crystallographic defect) in a Cu–2 wt.%Fe alloy aged at 700 C for (a) 30 min. − 0.67

y − 1.00
Simulated σy contours
− 1.16
z x
 Often one gets a feeling that residual stress is only harmful for a material, as it can cause
warpage of the component- this is far from true.
 Residual stress can both be beneficial and deleterious to a material, depending on the
context.
 Stress corrosion cracking leading to an accelerated corrosion in the presence of internal
stresses in the component, is an example of the negative effect of residual stresses.
 But, there are good numbers of examples as well to illustrate the beneficial effect of residual
stress; such as in transformation toughened zirconia (TTZ). In this system the crack tip
stresses (which are amplified over and above the far field mean applied stress) lead to the
transformation of cubic zirconia to tetragonal zirconia. The increase in volume associated
with this transformation imposes a compressive stress on the crack which retards its
propagation. This dynamic effect leads to an increased toughness in the material.
 Another example would be the surface compressive stress introduced in glass to toughen it
(Surface of molten glass solidified by cold air, followed by solidification of the bulk → the
contraction of the bulk while solidification, introduces residual compressive stresses on the
surface → fracture strength can be increased 2-3 times).
Funda Check What is the difference between simple and pure shear?

 Usually we apply ‘simple shear’ forces on a body. Though this is called simple shear it is clear that with
just two forces the body will not be in equilibrium (moment balance is not satisfied). This implies that
there has to be additional ‘hidden’ forces (as shown in Fig.1b). These forces ensure moment balance. To
understand this let us consider a block on a table being sheared by force ‘T’. Friction provides the
opposite force on bottom surface (T).
 At the material level, pure shear can be considered as simple shear + rotation of /2 (for small shear).

Fig.1
b
c
a
Note the bottom

For small deformations


Usually we apply simple shear forces on a material

Simple Shear The way the diagram is drawn the body is not in equilibrium!

Pure shear of /2 = Simple shear of  + ACW rotation of /2


Shear
OR
Pure Shear
Simple shear of  = Pure shear of /2 + CW rotation of /2

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