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ENGINEERING

AN INTRODUCTORY E-BOOK

Anandh Subramaniam & Kantesh Balani

Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)

Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016

Email: anandh@iitk.ac.in, URL: home.iitk.ac.in/~anandh

http://home.iitk.ac.in/~anandh/E-book.htm

In these brief set of slides we try to get a grasp of tensile, compressive and shear stresses

No strain, no gain! Sorry, this will not help with worldly stresses!!!

What will you learn in this chapter?

Why stress & strain?

Why not work with loads and elongations? (Which are more easy to comprehend as compared to stress & strain).

How do forces lead to stresses and strains?

Can stress exist without strain and can strain exist without stress?

How to ‘physically’ understand stress?

Understanding stress and strain tensors in terms of their components.

Hydrostatic and deviatoric components of stress and strain.

Planes of maximum shear stress (and their role in plasticity).

Understanding surface stress.

Residual stress. Microstructural origins of residual stress.

Please revise common types of loading and deformation induced by them first (click here)

Why Stress? Consider the experiment below in which 3 rods of the same material are

extended by a force ‘P’.

Why Strain?

Same area Case-2

Increase L

Case-1

Increase A

Same length Case-3

Note that increasing the length (L2 > L1) increases the elongation (2 > 1), while increasing

the area (A2 > A1) decreases the elongation (3 > 1). The load-elongation (P-) curve for

each of these bodies will be different. Clearly load is not a good parameter to characterize

‘what the material experiences’. This load is borne by a larger cross-sectional area in case-3 which decreases the elongation.

If we define stress (s or ) as load/area (P/A)*, then larger the load bearing area, lower will

be the stress in the material. Stress in case-1 & 2 are the same. Stress in case-3 is lower and

hence the elongation is smaller (as compared to case-1). [* In this 1D example- i.e. elongation is along 1D].

Continued…

In case-2 the elongation is more (2 > 1). As there is more material along the force.

This implies that elongation is not a good measure of ‘how the elongation feels to the

material’.

If we define strain (e or )* as change in length by original length

[(Lfinal Linitial)/Linitial] = L/L0 ,

then we will observe that strain in case-1 and case-2 is the same (i.e. 1/L1 = 2/L2).

If we plot the load-elongation (P-) curves for the samples (cases), we will have 3 plots (for

linear elastic materials these will be straight lines).

The slope of these curves is a structure/geometry dependent property called stiffness.

If on the other hand we plot stress-strain (s-e or -) curves, we will get one master curve

and the slope of this curve will be an inherent material property the Young’s (or elastic)

modulus.

Stress is the internal response of a material to externally applied loads.

Note:

• Both stress and strain are

defined at each point in the

material. In the stated

example, they are average

stress and strain.

• In general stress and strain

are second order tensors

Replot as - curve (with 9 components in 3D).

* Actually this is the definition of Engineering strain (e). But, if the strain is small e ~ (i.e. is approximately equal numerically to the true strain).

Stress and Strain

In normal life we are accustomed to loads/forces and displacements.

These are most appropriate variables when one talks about ‘point masses’,

‘rigid bodies’ or is sitting outside a body.

A

Inside a body (typically a deformable body with mass and extent), one can locate other

(appropriate) ‘field variables’ to describe the state of the system. E.g. inside a

gas kept in a cylinder, instead of tracking the velocities of the molecules, A’

we come up with a field variable called pressure, which describes the

momentum transferred by these molecules per unit area per unit time

(pressure is a ‘time averaged’ macroscopic quantity).

To understand the above point let us consider the ‘pulling’ of a body in

tension (figure to right). Assume there is a weak plane (AA’), the two

sides of which can slip past one another. We note as in the graphic that the

inclined plane ‘shears’ even though we applied tensile forces. That is the

plane feels shear stresses ().

Hence, when we apply only tensile forces to the body (in the simple example

considered), ‘certain field’ develops within the body, which depending on the

orientation of the plane in the body (or a unit volume being considered) can*

undergo shear and/or dilatation.

This field is the stress field and is a second order tensor with 9

components in general in 3D (4 in 2D). * It may so happen that some planes do not feel any shear stresses

(like the horizontal and vertical planes in in figures)

Stress in 1D is defined as: Stress = Force/Area. This implies that in 1D stress is a scalar.

Clearly, this is valid in 1D only, where a even a tensor looks like a scalar!!

Similar to the stress field (which we noted to be the ‘force dependent’ term within the body), we can define a

strain field, which is a ‘displacement dependent’ term. Strain is also a 2nd order tensor with

9 components in general in 3D. Strain in 1D is: Strain = change in length/original length

(usually for small strains). Some ‘general’

constraint

In summary:

External forces and constraints give rise to a stress field within a body.

Depending on the orientation of a unit element (cube in the figure), the

cube may stretch along one or two directions and/or may shear.

Unit cube

We do not

apply

stresses Some ‘general’

loading

Force Stress

Variables in rigid Variables in

Related variables inside the material

Body Mechanics solid mechanics

Displacement Strain

Funda Check What can happen to a unit volume inside a body on the application of external

loads/forces/constraints?

Or a

unit volume in a material combination

when we apply Shear Shape change of these

forces/constraints to the

outside of the body

Position/Orientation change

volume element (but affects

neighbouring elements)

Funda Check Does stress cause strain or does strain cause stress? Can we have ‘stress-free’

strain and ‘strain-free’ stress? How can strain and stress arise in a material?

First point: stresses can exist without strains (heating a body between rigid walls) and strains

can exist without stresses (heating a unconstrained/free-standing body).

What we are asking here is which came first (something like the proverbial chicken and egg problem!).

Both situations are possible (at least from a perspective of easy understanding).

If we load a body and this leads to stress inside the body→ this will lead to strains in a deformable

body. I.e. stress gives rise to strain. Load → Stress → Strain.

Now if a cubic phase transforms to another cubic phase with a larger lattice parameter (i.e. the

transformation involves volume expansion), we can assume two situations:

1) the transforming material is small and the whole volume transforms (Fig.1a)

2) the transforming volume is small, but now embedded in a matrix (Fig.1b).

In case (1) above there are no stresses.

In case (2) above the surrounding matrix will try to constrain the expansion, leading to stresses. The

primary causative agent in case (2) is strains (due to phase transformation), which further causes

stresses. Phase transformation→ Strain → Stress.

It is important to note that in most cases it is strain which is measured experimentally and

converted to stress via stress-strain relations involving material properties.

Fig.1a: Strains but no stresses

(dilatation during phase transformation)

Funda Check How can strain and stress arise in a material?

Some of the origins of stress and strain we have already seen in the previous slide. We consider here a

few more.

Basically, stress and strain can arise because of: (i) external loads/constraints/effects, (ii) internal

loads/constrains/effects & (iii) other stimuli (via ‘cross-coupling coefficients’).

Among external factors, heating (leading to an increased ‘T’) is an important one. Phase

transformation, which in itself can be caused by ‘T’, ‘P’, etc., is an important internal ‘effect’.

Other stimuli can also lead to stress/strain. Paramagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering (say on cooling),

can lead to strain in materials with a strong spin-lattice coupling. The strain induced by magnetization

is called magnetostriction and arises due to ‘cross-coupling’ between magnetic and strain parameters.

In inverse piezo-electric effect, application of an electric fields leads to strain/stress.

External loads/constrains/effects

Via cross-coupling coefficients

Scalar, Vector and Tensor Quantities

To describe a property at a point inside the material we may require to specify just: a

number (magnitude of that property like temperature or density), a magnitude and direction

(i.e. 3 numbers in 3D like for electric field or pyroelectric coefficient) or even more

numbers. The number of values required is given by 3n in 3D (2n in 2D); where ‘n’ is called

the rank of the tensor.

To understand why tensors are required let us consider a force ‘F’ (with a F) applied along

the x-axis and ask the question*: “what will happen to the body?”.

Clearly the information available is insufficient to answer unequivocally. If the forces are

applied as in Fig.1b the body will elongate, while if applied as in Fig.1c the body will shear.

Hence, we need to specify the plane on which the force is acting. In case in Fig.1b the +F

force is acting on the +x-plane along the +x direction this is written as Fxx. In Fig.1c the

force +F is acting along the +y-plane along the +x direction written as Fyx.

This implies (in this example of mechanical deformation) two directions are required to specify the force

(and hence determine its effect):

(i) the direction of the plane normal and (ii) the direction of the force.

A combination of these forces Fxx & Fxy could also be acting on the body.

F Fyx

Note. For tension/compression: +F on +x

F F F face is positive and similarly, F force on x Fig.1c

Fig.1a Fig.1b plane is also positive. For shear: shear

F causing clockwise rotation is positive.

Fxx F

* For now we will assume that other forces are present to give us force and moment balance (i.e. equilibrium condition).

Also note that force (F) is a vector and we are trying to understand its effect as a prelude to tensors.

Q&A Give examples of axial and polar vectors.

Axial vectors: Mechanical moment, Angular momentum, Curl of a polar vector.

A scalar does not require a coordinate system to define and hence is independent of the

coordinate axes chosen. We require just one number at each point for a scalar.

A vector can be represented by its components along a set of coordinate axes.

We require three numbers in 3D at each point to specify a vector.

A change in the coordinate axes system (change in the angle between the basis vectors,

translation/rotation of the basis vectors) will change the components along the axes; but, will

the vector itself will remain unchanged.

The transformation of a vector (rotation, inversion, mirror, etc.) can be carried out using a

transformation matrix.

A second rank tensor can also can be represented by its components along a set of coordinate

axes. It can be visualized as a combination of two directions.

We require nine numbers in 3D at each point to specify a second rank tensor.

A change in the coordinate axes system will change the components along the axes; but, will

the tensor itself will remain unchanged.

The transformation of a second rank tensor can be carried out using two transformation

matrices. We will repeat some of these concepts soon.

Tensors of various ranks

Tensors can be used to describe:

(i) fields (field tensors) or (ii) properties (property tensors).

These tensors can belong to various ranks: zeroth rank, first rank, second rank, etc.

E.g. Temperature field is a scalar field, where each point in space is described by one

number the ‘T’ at that point (T(x,y,z)).

Scalar fields are tensor fields of rank-0. On the other hand some fields require more numbers

to be specified at each point in space.

Electric field (polar vector) and Magnetic field (axial vector) require three numbers (in 3D)

to be specified at each point. These 3 numbers are the components along the coordinate axes

and give the direction and magnitude of the vector. Such a field is a vector field. Vectors are

tensors of rank-1.

Some other fields require more numbers to be specified. E.g. to describe the state of stress at

a point, we need 9 numbers (in 3D) in general (stress being a symmetric tensor we actually need only 6 numbers).

Stress is a tensor of rank-2.

We have already seen (Matrix representation of symmetry operators) that symmetry operators can be written as transformation matrices;

which involve operations like rotation (about a crystallographic axis), inversion (about an inversion centre usually the centre of the unit

cell) and mirror (about a plane usually passing through lattice points are exactly between lattice points).

* Note: only one number needed at each point. If there is a to point to point variation of temperature a set of T have to be specified for each

(x,y,z) which gives rise to the temperature field.

Funda Check What is the order of a tensor? How can we understand force and stress from this

perspective?

The order of a tensor basically tells us the number of directions involved in describing the

quantity.

Two types of tensors may be distinguished:

field tensors (like stress) and property tensors (like electrical conductivity).

The direction may be visualized as a vector. The direction itself may be prescribed under Cartesian, polar or other coordinate systems.

The number of basis vectors required to specify the direction will depend on the dimension the direction ‘lives’ in. In 2D we need two

basis vectors and in 3D three basis vectors.

A scalar (zeroth order tensor) has no directions involved. E.g. density ().

A vector (first order tensor) requires one direction to be specified. E.g. electric field vector

(E), magnetic field vector (H).

A second order tensor requires 2 directions to be specified. E.g. stress (ij), strain (ij),

thermal expansion coefficient (ij) .

Taking this forward, a nth order tensor requires ‘n’ directions for its specification. Examples

of higher order tensors include: piezoelectric coefficient (dijk) and elastic constant (Eijkl).

Equation

0 Energy (E) Density () -

3 - Piezoelectric Coefficient (dijk) Pi = dijkjk

Let us start by considering some important quantities Examples of some vector and tensor quantities

Quantity Type Acts

Force (Fi) (Polar) vector At a point mass

Torque Pseudo Vector (Axial Vector) About an axis

Stress (ij) Second order Tensor Acts on a volume element*

Traction vector is the internal force$ vector on a cross-section divided by the cross-section’s

area. Traction has units of stress (e.g. MPa) but is a vector and not the stress tensor. In a

continuous body the tractions on the opposite internal surface cancel each other.

Traction and stress may vary with position, orientation and time; i.e., are field quantities

with spatial and temporal variations (next slide).

Polar vectors reflect in a mirror, axial vectors do not reflect.

Finternal

T

Area

* With the exception of surface stress

which acts only on the surface.

$ External force is also called surface

The scalar component of the normal stress is given by: T.n tractions.

Funda Check What is the difference between Traction and Stress?

Sometimes Traction is also called as the stress vector (thus adding to the confusion!).

Traction is a vector (1st order tensor), while stress is a tensor (2nd order tensor).

Traction is a measure of the ‘intensity of the force’ and is defined as the force per unit area*

(on a cut plane inside a body). Traction can act in any direction, i.e. need not be parallel to the normal.

On opposite surfaces created by the cut plane (at a point), the traction vector is equal in

magnitude (but opposite in direction). I.e. at P and P’ (in the Fig.1) the traction vectors are T & T.

The components of the Traction vector when divided by the unit area gives us the

components of the stress tensor (In Fig.2 a special case is considered for simplicity, wherein

the area normal is along ‘z’ and A is the unit area (shaded yellow)).

When the cutting procedure is carried out along the 3 orthogonal planes and we compute the

stresses acting, we get the 9 components of the stress tensor.

Tz

zz

Note the traction

vector has been

moved to the corner of

the area (actually it

A

should be at P)

Tx

zx

A

Fig.1 Ty

zy

* Infinitesimal area (i.e. in the limit A0) Fig.2 A

Stress

Stress is a second order tensor and best understood in terms of its effect on a unit body

(cube in 3D and square in 2D), in terms of its components.

Stresses can be Compressive, Tensile or Shear (in terms of specific components).

We may apply forces/constraints and stresses will develop within the material (including the

surface) we apply forces (or constraints) and not stresses.

The source of stress could be an external agent (forces etc.) or could be internal

(dislocations, coherent precipitates etc.) i.e. stresses can exist in a body in the absence of

external agents (residual stress).

The effect of stress at a particular point in the material is not dependent on how the stress

came about (i.e. could be external or internal factors) just the components of stress matter

in determining the response of the material.

We can have stress without strain and strain without stress (ideal circumstances)

Strain without stress heat a unconstrained body (it will expand and no

stresses will develop)

Stress without Strain heat a body constrained between rigid walls (it will

not be able to expand but stresses will develop).

In 3D if two of the three principal stresses* are equal it is called cylindrical state of stress

(1 = 2 3) and if all the principal stresses are equal, it is referred to hydrostatic state of

stress (1 = 2 = 3).

The cause behind the strains can be: stress electric field temperature change, etc.

Note: We can apply forces and not stresses- stresses develop within the body

Shear

E.g.

Only shear tends to change

the shape of a body without

changing its volume

due lack of moment balance

In anisotropic crystals it

may do more (may even

shear the crystal)!

Anisotropic crystals

Note: we apply shear force and shear stresses

develop in the interior of the material

Funda Check How do I understand the sign of stress (if compressive or tensile)?

In tensile stress material points want to come towards each other as they have been

stretched from their equilibrium positions.

In compressive stress the reverse is true material points want to go away from one

another (as they have been compressed as compared to their equilibrium positions).

Any of these may be used

Method A depending on the situation Method B

Effect on points, lines, surfaces Effect on release of

and volumes in the body constraint

This visualization may or may

not be easy in many situations

Page-1

Method A

Forces on the external surface of a body

Uniaxial tensile stress tends to elongate the

the length of the body (shorten the body)

body

Page-2

Method B

Let us get a physical feel for TENSILE STRESS

2

1

Pull a body of length L0 to new

length L1 and hold it at this length

3

4

Introduce a cut (crack)

in the body

due to the tensile stress

That is when the constraint is removed points in the body move towards each

other

I.e. under tensile stress the points in a body tend to move towards one another

(while the crack faces move apart)

Page-3 This is because we have increased the interatomic distance over the equilibrium value. !***!

Alternately if the external constraint is removed points in the

body move towards each other

I.e. under tensile stress the points in the body tend to move

towards one another

That is when the constraint is removed points in the body move away from each other

I.e. under compressive stress the points in the body tend to move away one another

Page-4

Funda Check How can tensile and shear stresses arise inside a material?

Stresses of a particular type can arise inside a material by: (Case-1) Shear or tensile loading,

(Case-2) geometry of loading, (Case-3) orientation of planes within the material.

(Case-1) Shear loading leading to shear stresses (note: focus on the sponge- else it will look like case-2)

planes feel shear.

(Case-2) Geometry of loading leading to

shear stresses (Loads applied are purely tensile).

The Stress (& Strain) Tensors

Tensors which measure crystal properties (e.g. magnetic susceptibility) have a definite

orientation within a crystal and its components are dictated by the crystal symmetry. These

are Material Property Tensors or Material Property Tensors.

The stress and strain tensors can have any orientation within a crystal and can even be

defined for amorphous (or isotropic) materials.

The stress tensor ‘develops’ the material in response to ‘forces’.

The stress and strain tensors are Field Tensors. On the other hand, the elastic constant is a

Material Property Tensor (4th order, Eijkl).

(Say) when forces are applied to a body, stress and strain tensor fields develop within the

body.

In a isotropic materials the direction of principal stresses coincides with the directions of

principal strains.

* The order of a tensor basically tells us the number of directions involved in describing the quantity. A scalar (zeroth order tensor) has no

directions involved. A vector (first order tensor) requires one direction to be specified. A second order tensor like stress, requires 2 directions

to be specified. Taking this forward, a nth order tensor requires ‘n’ directions for its specification.

Understanding stress in terms of its components

Stress is a Second Order Tensor. (It is a symmetric tensor: ij = ji in usual materials).

It is easier to understand stress in terms of its components and the effect of the

components in causing deformations to a unit body within the material.

These components can be treated as vectors. xx xy xx xy xz

Components of a stress:

yx yy

2D (plane stress) 4 components [2 (tensile) and 2 (shear)] yx yy yz

zx zy zz

3D 9 components [3 (tensile) and 6 (shear)]

written with subscripts not equal implies (shear stress). E.g. xy xy.

First index refers to the plane and the second to the direction.

Close to 2D state of stress (plane stress) can occur in very thin bodies and 2D state of

strain (plane strain) very thick bodies. In plane stress components of stress with ‘z’

coordinates are zero.

Shear stresses are responsible for plastic deformation in metallic materials (by slip).

xx

xx 11 x-plane, x-direction

Also written as x

Direction

xy xy 12 x-plane, y-direction

Plane yx yx 21

Let us consider a body in the presence of external agents (constraints and forces), which

causes stresses in the body.

Stresses are defined at a point and may vary from point to point; but, we consider a ‘sample’ rectangle in 2D or a sample

cube in 3D. This representation helps in visualizing the effect of stress on unit element. The sample region (rectangle or

cube) is shown to be of finite extent for illustration purposes, but should be of infinitesimal extent.

A unit region in the body (assumed having constant stresses) is analyzed. (body forces are

ignored)

2D

xx xy xx xy 11 12

yx yy

yx yy 21 22

(the stresses in general could be compression/tension

* Note: xx = x and shear could be opposite in sign)

Understanding how stress develops inside a material based on the load applied 2D

The normal stresses (x & y) tend to elongate the body (the square in the figure below)

→ this will give rise to volume changes.

The shear stress (xy = yx) will tend to change the shape of the body → without changing its volume.

Depending on the orientation of the unit volume considered, the stresses acting on its

faces will change.

A good feel for the same can be got by looking at stress in 2D (plane stress, with 3

independent components).

We have already noted that even if we apply tensile/compressive forces, shear stresses can develop on inclined planes.

Stress on one axes set (x, y) can be mapped to stress on another axes (x’, y’) set by the

formulae as below.

There will always be one unique axis set (x’, y’), wherein the shear stresses are zero. The

corresponding planes are the principal planes and the principal normal stresses are labeled:

1 and 2 (More about this soon).

x y x y

x' Cos 2 xy Sin2

2 2

x y x y

y' Cos 2 xy Sin2

2 2

x y

x' y' Sin2 xy Cos 2

2

Points to be noted (some of these will be illustrated via figures in coming slides):

Planes of maximum/minimum normal stress () correspond to zero shear stress (xy = 0)

→ known as the principal planes. The corresponding stresses are the principal stresses

(labeled 1 and 2).

There exist planes where shear stress is zero. These planes also correspond to extremum in

normal stresses. Planes of extremum shear stress are 45 from planes of zero shear stress

(which correspond to the principal planes).

The period of the functions is 180 (as above equations are functions of Sine and Cosine

of 2) the maxima of the functions is separated from the minima by 90. This is

expected: e.g. the stress in +x (xx) is expected to be same as stress in –x (xx).

Extremum in shear stress occurs midway in angle between extrema in normal stress.

Shear stress is symmetric, i.e. xy = yx. Minimum value of shear stress = – (Maximum

value of shear stress).

2 xy

1

max 1 x y x y 2

2 2

Principal

xy Tan2 Principal plane Tan2n

stresses

min 2 2 2

x y

x y

1

x y 2 2

2

Maximum

shear stress max xy Tan2 Max shear stress plane Tan2 s

2 xy

2

1

Tan 2 n

Tan 2 s

Now we will consider special cases of importance

Case-1

The simplest case can be loading in uniaxial tension.

For x and y as in the figure below only the vertical and horizontal planes feel no shear stress (every

other plane feels shear stress). This is in spite of the fact that we applied only a tensile force.

Shear stress is maximum at 45. For xx = 100MPa, |max| = 50 MPa.

Rotation of 90 implies that x goes to y and y goes to –x (which is same as x).

The principal stress is the resultant of what we applied → Px (i.e. 1 = 100 MPa).

110

100

=100 MPa 90

80

Normal stresses reaches extremum

50 when shear stress is zero

40

Stress→

30

20

10

0

-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

-20 → x

sX

-30 y

sY

-40 xy

tXY

-50

tx+y

-60 Note that every inclined plane feels

shear stress

Case-2

If we push along one direction (say y) and pull along another direction (say x), with equal magnitude.

(Biaxial ‘push-pull’).

For x and y as in the figure below the vertical and horizontal planes feel no shear stress. The are the

principal planes and the principal stress are (trivially): 1 = 100MPa, 2 = –100MPa

Shear stress is maximum at 45 (at this angle both normal stresses are zero).

For xx = 100MPa & yy = –100MPa, |max| = 100 MPa → the shear stress equals the normal stresses in

magnitude (even though we did not apply shear forces)

This implies this ‘push-pull’ configuration gives rise to a higher value of shear stress. This aspect can be

physically visualized as well.

All stress functions ( & ) are identical and only phase shifted from each other.

110

= –100 MPa Load applied Body 100

90

80

70

60

=100 MPa 50

40

30

20

Stress→

10

The above stress state can be 0

-10 0

thought of arising from a 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

-20

loading as in the figure to right -30

-40

-50

This loading is equivalent of applying

shear stress at planes inclined at 45.

-60 x

sX

-70 y

sY

-80

-90 xy

tXY

Note that (x + y) = 0 for all -100

→

t x+y

-110

Case-3

If we pull along one direction (say x) and push along another direction (say y) with lesser force.

For x and y as in the figure below the vertical and horizontal planes feel no shear stress.

Shear stress is maximum at 45. For xx = 100MPa & yy = –100MPa, |max| = 75 MPa.

There are no planes where both normal stresses are zero.

= –50 MPa

=100 MPa

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

Stress→

20

10

0

-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

-20

-30

-40

x

sX

-50

-60

y

sY

-70 xy

tXY

-80 tx+y

-90 →

Case-4

Equi-biaxial tension (2D hydrostatic state of stress).

All planes feel equal normal stress.

There is no shear stress on any plane.

Usual materials (metallic) will not plastically deform (by slip) under this state of stress (in plane i.e.

the planes inclined in the third dimension may experience shear stress, which can lead to plastic

deformation by slip).

= 100 MPa

110

All planes feel equal normal stress

100

=100 MPa

90

80

70

60

Stress→ 50

40

30 x

sX

y

sY

20 All planes feel zero shear stress

xy

tXY

10

→ tx+y

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

-10

Case-5

Pure shear*: Only shear forces applied. (Can be considered a case for pure shear).

This leads to a stress state identical to case-2, but with phase shift of 45.

Though we applied only shear forces, normal stresses develop in all planes except the planes where

shear stresses are maximum.

Load applied

Body

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

Stress→

10

0

-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

-20

-30

→

=100 MPa -40

-50

-60 x

sX

-70 y

sY

-80

xy

Note that (x + y) = 0 for all -90 tXY

-100 t x+y

-110

How is pure shear different from simple shear (click here to know more)

Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Components of Stress

(In metallic materials) Hydrostatic components of stress can cause elastic volume changes

and not plastic deformation.

Yield stress (of metals) is not dependent on the hydrostatic stress. However, fracture stress

(f) is strongly affected by hydrostatic stress.

xy

We understand the concept of hydrostatic and deviatoric stress in 2D first. ij xx

Hydrostatic stress is the average of the two normal stresses. yx yy

( xx yy ) xx yy xx yy

m xy 0 xy

0 m yy

2D

2 2

ij m

hydrostatic

2 m xx

0 m xx yy xx yy

yx

xy

0

Hydorstatic Part Deviatoric part 2 2

Hydrostatic part Deviatoric part

xx yy

2

= + xx yy

2

For only normal loads applied on a rectangular body (equal/zero), what is the

Funda Check increasing order in which there is a propensity to cause plastic deformation?

(Considering only in-plane stresses and plasticity by slip).

pure shear

=

same as

• This is 2D hydrostatic state of • Note if we add +ve yy to uniaxial tension

stress. this is bad for plastic deformation.

• Note: slip can still take place on • Similarly in 3D triaxial (tensile) state of

the planes inclined in the 3rd

dimension

stress is bad for plastic deformation.

• Hence, triaxial state of stress ‘suppresses’

plastic deformation and ‘promotes’ fracture.

=100 MPa

This reiterates the important point that we already know that, hydrostatic states of stress tend to

cause volume changes, while shear stress tend to cause shape changes.

Mohr’s circle representation of stress

A nice geometrical way of understanding stress is the Mohr’s circle representation of stress.

In plane stress condition (2D) the stresses can be written as:

x y x y x y x y x y

x' Cos 2 xy Sin 2 y' Cos 2 xy Sin2 x' y' Sin2 xy Cos 2

2 2 2 2 2

This can be rearranged as:

x y x y y x

x' cos 2 xy sin 2 x' y' sin 2 xy cos 2

2 2 2

2

x y x y

2

This is of

x' 2

x' y' xy

2

( x a )2 y 2 r 2

2 2 the form

Which is the equation of a circle with:

y

Centre(a,0) x ,0

2

1

x y 2 2

2

Radius max xy

2

Features of the Mohr’s circle of stress

The axes (Coordinates) are: ( x ' , x ' y ' ) . The centre of the circle is always on the x-axis.

Angle ‘’ in physical element is represented by ‘2’ on Mohr's circle. So 45 on the physical element is 90 in Mohr’s

circle.

Shear stress causing clockwise rotation in the physical element is plotted as a positive number

(above the horizontal axis).

Any point on the Mohr's circle gives the magnitude and direction of normal and shear stresses

on any plane in the physical element. The inside of the Mohr’s circle has no physical meaning (only the circumference).

Traversing along the x-axis gives the two priciple stresses: 1 & 2.

Points G, H in Fig.1 correspond to planes G and H in the physical element (Fig.2).

Fig.1

Fig.2

Mohr’s circle for various specific cases

Considering specific cases can help us understand the utility of the Mohr’s circle.

Case-1 Uniaxial tension Planes A & B are principal planes.

2 = 0.

r = (1/2)

P 0

Pij xx

0 0

1 = 0.

2 is negative.

P 0

Pij xx

0 0

Case-3 Equi-biaxial tension The circle collapses to a point.

(rMohr’s cicle = 0). P 0

Pij 1

2 = 2.

0 P1

xy is zero. Pxx P1

Since there is no shear stress,

plastic deformation by slip

cannot occur (in-plane).

Tension-compression

2 = 0.

The Mohr’s circle will look

exactly identical for the case

below of pure shear just that

planes C & D are 45. (Considered in

case-5)

P 0

Pij 1

0 P1

Case-5 Pure Shear The principal planes are at 45 to

the C & D planes. C & D are the

principal shear planes.

0 T1

Pij

1T 0

Generalized Plane Stress

3D state of stress

In general, a point in a body may exist in a 3D state of stress, wherein the 3 principal

stresses (1, 2, 3) are not equal. The list of possibilities in this context are:

3 unequal principal stresses (1, 2, 3) → Triaxial state of stress

2 our of the 3 principal stresses are equal (say 1, 2 = 3) → Cylindrical state of stress

All 3 principal stresses are equal (say 1 = 2 = 3) → Hydrostatic/spherical state of stress

One of the 3 principal stresses is zero (say 1, 2, 3 = 0) → Biaxial/2D state of stress

One of the 3 principal stresses is zero & the remaining two are equal to each other (say 1 = 2, 3 = 0) → 2D hydrostatic state of stress

Two of the 3 principal stresses is zero (say 1, 2 = 3 = 0) → Uniaxial state of stress.

We can start with the state of stress on an unit cube and observe the state of stress as the

orientation of the cube is changed (by rotation in 3D) or we can look at an inclined plane

with direction cosines l (=Cos), m (=Cos), n (=Cos). This is akin to the square we used in 2D and rotate it about the

z-axis.

Planes which experience maximum shear stress/no shear stress

Plastic deformation by slip is caused by shear stress (at the atomic level). Hence, we would

like to identify planes of maximum shear stress.

For uniaxial tension, biaxial hydrostatic tension, triaxial hydrostatic tension, etc., we try to

identify planes experiencing maximum shear stress.

= 100 MPa

Biaxial hydrostatic tension

=100 MPa Same in magnitude

=1 But yielding can =100 MPa

Uniaxial tension take place due to

planes inclined in

2

1

the third dimension

1 0

These planes

2 which fell shear

feel no stresses

shear stress These planes

(0kl) type feel maximum

=1

shear stress

2 1 2 1

2 2

These planes

feel maximum =1

shear stress

2 3

1

These planes feel 2

3 0

3 1 no shear stress

2 (hk0) type 1 3 1 2

2 3

2 2

Triaxial hydrostatic tension ‘Push-pull’ normal stresses

= 1 = 3

No plane feels 1

any shear stress 1

= 1 = 2

2

1 2 3 0 These planes

feel shear stress

2 1

2

maximum shear stress

twice the other planes (above)

1 ( 1 ) 2 1

3

2 2

Surface Stress

Surface Stress

Surface is associated with surface energy (see topic on Surface Energy and Surface

Tension).

Hence a body wants to minimizes its surface area. In the process surface atoms want to

move towards each other.

The surface of a body (say a liquid) is under tensile stress (usual surfaces are under tensile stress, under

some circumstances (e.g. polar surfaces) can be under surface compression).

As the molecules of water want to come towards one another (to minimize surface area) the

stress has to be tensile.

This can also be understood by releasing a constraint as in coming slides (as before).

Consider a soap film held between fixed sliders

forces balance the reaction of the slider

the points want to move towards each other the surface is

under tension

Residual Stress

Residual stress What is ‘residual stress’ and how can it arise in a material (/component)?

The stress present in a material/component in the absence of external loading/forces or

constraints (i.e. in a free-standing body) is called residual stress.

Residual stress can ‘be’ in the macro-scale or micro-scale and can be deleterious or

beneficial depending on the context (diagram below).

Residual stress may have multiple origins as in the diagrams (next slide).

We have already noted that residual stress is an important part of the definition of

microstructure (it can have profound impact on properties).

Residual Corresponding

Stress strains will be

Micro-scale Micro-strain

• E.g.

Stress corrosion cracking

+ Residual Surface Stress (e.g. in toughened glass)

Unlike a void or a crack, a dislocation is naturally associated with residual stresses.

A crack or a void only amplify far field stresses.

Microstructure

Residual

Phases + Defects + Stress • Vacancies

• Dislocations

• Vacancies Defects • Voids

• Dislocations • Cracks

• Twins

Phase Transformation & reactions

• Stacking Faults

• Grain Boundaries

• Voids

• Cracks Thermal origin • Mismatch in coefficient of thermal

expansion

• Thermal

Physical properties • Magnetic

• Ferroelectric

Residual

Origins/Related to

Stress

Geometrical entities

Residual stresses due to an edge

dislocation in a cylindrical crystal

+ 2.44

All values are in GPa

+ 1.00

+ 0.67

+ 0.33

0.00

− 0.33

Due to a dislocation Stress state (plot of y) due to a coherent -Fe precipitate

(a crystallographic defect) in a Cu–2 wt.%Fe alloy aged at 700 C for (a) 30 min. − 0.67

y − 1.00

Simulated σy contours

− 1.16

z x

Often one gets a feeling that residual stress is only harmful for a material, as it can cause

warpage of the component- this is far from true.

Residual stress can both be beneficial and deleterious to a material, depending on the

context.

Stress corrosion cracking leading to an accelerated corrosion in the presence of internal

stresses in the component, is an example of the negative effect of residual stresses.

But, there are good numbers of examples as well to illustrate the beneficial effect of residual

stress; such as in transformation toughened zirconia (TTZ). In this system the crack tip

stresses (which are amplified over and above the far field mean applied stress) lead to the

transformation of cubic zirconia to tetragonal zirconia. The increase in volume associated

with this transformation imposes a compressive stress on the crack which retards its

propagation. This dynamic effect leads to an increased toughness in the material.

Another example would be the surface compressive stress introduced in glass to toughen it

(Surface of molten glass solidified by cold air, followed by solidification of the bulk → the

contraction of the bulk while solidification, introduces residual compressive stresses on the

surface → fracture strength can be increased 2-3 times).

Funda Check What is the difference between simple and pure shear?

Usually we apply ‘simple shear’ forces on a body. Though this is called simple shear it is clear that with

just two forces the body will not be in equilibrium (moment balance is not satisfied). This implies that

there has to be additional ‘hidden’ forces (as shown in Fig.1b). These forces ensure moment balance. To

understand this let us consider a block on a table being sheared by force ‘T’. Friction provides the

opposite force on bottom surface (T).

At the material level, pure shear can be considered as simple shear + rotation of /2 (for small shear).

Fig.1

b

c

a

Note the bottom

Usually we apply simple shear forces on a material

Simple Shear The way the diagram is drawn the body is not in equilibrium!

Shear

OR

Pure Shear

Simple shear of = Pure shear of /2 + CW rotation of /2