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Energy Efficiency

Raafia Nisar - 502

Tallataf Rasheed - 105
Kinza Ali - 101
Maria Hanif - 107
Raafia Nisar - 502
Energy Efficiency
 SEforALL
 In 2011 the United Nations’ Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) initiative, set a
target to double both the share of renewable energy in global final energy
consumption (to 36% by 2030) and the rate of improvement in energy efficiency.
 In 2015, the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 agenda for Sustainable
Development and the reaffirmed the earlier SEforALL objectives but replaced the
36% renewables target with a more general goal to “increase substantially the share
of renewable energy in the global energy mix” by 2030.
 In 2018, the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change presented several pathways for mitigating climate change.
 Each of the outlined pathways is characterized, in part, by relative reductions in
global energy demand. Reducing energy demand requires advances in both energy
efficiency and energy conservation.
Efforts and Improvements

 Efforts have been made to disaggregate the effects of the three main
determinants of total final energy demand
 structural changes within economies
 changes in the level of activity in each economic sector
 changes in the efficiency of energy use in each sector
 (Energy Efficiency 2018: Analysis and Outlook
to 2040, https://www.iea.org/efficiency2018/.)
 Such analysis has indicated that, without improvements in energy
efficiency, global final energy demand in 2017 would have been 12%
higher than 2000 levels.
Efforts and Improvements (cont…)

Worldwide, policy support for energy efficiency increased substantially

between 2010 and 2017.
City governments adopted:
 Building Energy codes
 Energy efficiency performance standards
 Policies for energy efficiency
 Allocate resources most effectively
 The increase in the amount of renewable energy sources with zero variable
Efforts and Improvements (cont...)

Government policies are instrumental in improving energy efficiency in

the end-use sectors of buildings, industry and transport.
 Policies supporting energy efficiency in the European Union (EU) have been
credited with advancing the share of renewable heat in buildings to 22% in 2017,
as the demand for heat in the region stabilised making the EU the only region in
the world where heat demand is declining.
Global Primary Energy Intensity
The increase in the energy efficiency
requirement of policy mandates was 0.5% in
2017, slightly below the 0.6% annual average
since 2011, and was concentrated mostly
in the transport sector on account of rising
fuel economy standards.

Global primary energy intensity decreased

more than 10% during the five-year period
between 2012 and 2017, at an average
annual rate of 2.2% but the total primary
energy supply grew 5.9% over the same
period (average annual growth of 1.2%).
Global Primary Energy Intensity (cont…)
Global Primary Energy Intensity (cont…)
Tallataf Rasheed - 105
Energy Demand

Energy Demand increases due to.

Rapid economic growth
Improved access to energy
In some Mature countries it is leveled off,
In UK, energy demand is at its lowest level since 1964
to 2017
In Germany it is 14% below its historical peak in 1979
Energy Demand for OECD

Organization for Economic Co-operation and

Development (OECD)
Collective energy demand of members of OECD reached a
historical peak in 2007.
Despite sustained economic recovery and growth since
then, that peak remains unchallenged.
Energy Demand for non OECD

Continues to rise.
In China this demand’
 fells slightly in 2016
its first decline since 1997
Again increases in 2017
Advances in energy efficiency

 Most visible in the various end uses of energy

- Road vehicles,
- Appliances
- Lighting
Gains in energy efficiency

It also occurs because primary energy sources are

transformed and converted into various useful
secondary forms of energy
 production of vehicle fuels in oil refineries
 electricity generation in power plants
Total primary energy supply (TPES)

In 2016, it was 576 exajoules.

It dissipated due to following transformation processes
 bulk is lost during electricity generation
6% loss in the operation of oil refineries and the mining and
extraction of fossil fuels
2% “non-productive” losses, which occur mainly during the
transmission and distribution of electricity
Available Energy of TPES

Available energy is 400 EJ in 2016 .

This total final consumption of energy (TFC),
19% electricity delivered to final customers
72% the final uses of fuels for work and heat
9% various non-energy uses
Broke down by sector
buildings sector consumed 30%
industry consumed 29%
transport consumed 29%.
Available Energy of TPES

The remainder of TFC is consumed in other sectors

agriculture and forestry (2.1% in 2016)
for non-energy applications (9.1% in 2016), mainly
various industrial uses such as feedstocks for
petrochemical manufacturing.
Kinza Ali - 101
Electricity Generation
 Electricity generation is a major determinant for
different process around the world.
 A significant portion of the world’s primary energy
supply (coal, natural gas, oil and biomass) is
combusted in the process of generating electricity.
 The efficiency of conversion has improved only
gradually: in 2016, an estimated 38.1% of the
combustible energy input for electricity up slightly
from 35% in 2000.
How to improve efficiency???
 To improve the efficiency of thermal power plants.
 By displacing thermal (combustion) generation with technologies
that do not involve significant losses of primary energy during
transformation including all non-thermal renewable electricity
generating technologies.
 Further efficiency gains have been accomplished through the use of
combined heat and power (CHP) production and by reducing
ga T&D losses.

 Overall, the share of CHP in total electricity generation has not

increased much in recent decades and actually declined slightly
between 2010 and 2016 – from 16.3% to 15.7% – due in part to
strong growth in non-thermal renewable electricity generation.
 Between 2012 and 2017, the overall efficiency of all electricity
generation (thermal and non-thermal) improved at an average
annual rate of 1.1%,from 40.5% to 42.8%

 Between 2000 and 2017, the energy demand of buildings

worldwide increased 20%.
 The buildings sector accounts for around 30% of TFC (including the
use of traditional biomass).
 Residential buildings consume nearly three quarters of this energy,
while the rest is used in commercial and public buildings.
Energy Efficiency in Buildings
Various factors determine the efficiency
of energy use in buildings:
 Building design
 Construction materials (for example,
glazing, insulation and orientation)
 Efficiency of energy-consuming (and
energy-saving) devices within the
building envelope (for example,
heating, cooling and ventilation)
 Lighting, appliances and other
 Policies supporting energy efficiency in the buildings
sector include codes (related to structures and
 Performance standards for HVAC systems, lighting
and appliances.
 High-income countries generally have relatively well
 programmes in place – covering standards,
incentives, financing and access to information.
 Whereas most developing countries have
made limited progress on building energy codes and
efficiency standards.
Building demand
The overall energy demand of buildings has increased. This is
due primarily to the
 Combined effect of a growing population and an increase in the total
floor area occupied per person as incomes have risen.
 Other factors that have boosted energy use in buildings include the
growing use of air conditioners and other cooling equipment.
 Factors that have been most effective in mitigating the growth in
energy demand include efficient energy systems and appliances in
buildings, as well as improved building envelopes (such as glazing and
Global energy demand for cooling

 It has grown more rapidly than any other end-use, more than
tripling between 1990 and 2016.
 During this period, the share of cooling in the total electricity use of
buildings grew from 11% to 18.5%.
 Cooling already comprised nearly 10% of global electricity
consumption as of 2016 and can be a significant portion of peak
demand during hot periods
Cooling Demand

 Lack of adequate building energy codes in many places make it

difficult otherwise it would be for each new household that adopts
air conditioning.
 The growth in cooling demand is already straining energy systems
in some locations.
 As of 2018 only 8% of the 2.8 billion people living in the hottest
parts of the world had gained access to air conditioning.
Consumption Share
 The buildings sector as a whole accounts for around 49% of
world electricity consumption, with the residential sector
consuming 27% and commercial and public buildings
consuming 22%.
 Between 2012 and 2017, global average electricity
consumption per household grew 0.7% annually, but this
growth varied widely by region.
 Household electricity demand rose most rapidly in Asia
(average annual growth of 3.7%), followed by the
Commonwealth of Independent States (2.8%) and the
Middle East (2.4%).
 Oceania showed the greatest rate of decline in household
electricity demand (average annual contraction of 2.3%),
followed by Europe (-1.2%) and North America (-0.8%).
Maria Hanif - 107

Some Definitions
 Energy efficiency : The measure that accounts for delivering more services for same
energy input, or the same amount of services for less energy input.
 TFC : Total final consumption includes energy demand in all end-use sectors, which
include industry, transport, buildings and agriculture, as well as non-energy uses, such
as the use of fossil fuel in production of fertilizer.
 Kgoe: Kilogram(s) of oil equivalent, usually abbreviated as kgoe, is a normalized unit of
energy. By convention it is equivalent to the approximate amount of energy that can be
extracted from one kilogram of crude oil. Net calorific value of 41,868 kilojoules/kg .
 Building energy codes Rules specifying the minimum energy standards for
buildings. These can include standards for renewable energy and energy
efficiency that are applicable to new and/or renovated and refurbished
buildings.(It is cheaper and easier to build in energy-saving components at the time of
construction, meaning that energy savings opportunities are lost over the lifetime the
building if they are not added in during initial construction.)
 Industrial sector accounts for nearly 29% of TFC.
 Between 2010 and 2016, average annual growth in
industrial energy use is 1.3%
India (4.7%)
Republic of Korea (2.7%)
China (2.6%) two-thirds of the total net increase
Middle East (2.5%)
Energy Efficiency Measures for industry

 60% of countries in 2017

26% share in 2010
More than double follow building energy codes
Energy efficiency

 Industrial activity doubles between 2000 and 2017 but:

Energy demand in industry grew less than half
(Due to structural changes in the economy and by energy
efficiency improvements).
Improved cement and chemicals manufacturing facilities, in
China and India contributed to this increased efficiency.
Energy Intensity

 Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a

nation's economy or primary energy consumption per
unit of economic output.
 High energy intensity indicate a high price or cost of converting energy into GDP.
 Low energy intensity indicate a lower price or cost of converting energy into GDP.

(Gross Domestic Products (GDP) is market value of all the

final goods and services)
Comparison of Energy Intensity
Decline of Energy Intensity, between 2000 and
Cement manufacturing by more than one third.
Pulp and paper over 20%
Aluminum manufacturing by 16%
Iron and steel by 5%
 Between 2000 and 2017 Energy use in the transport sector increase by 45%
 Which is 29% of TFC.
 Most of the increase in energy use is due to
 Transport energy from biofuels is 3%
 Electricity from biofuels is 0.3%

 In 2016 energy demand for

 Road transport (75%)
 Aviation (11%)
 Marine transport (9.6%)
 Pipeline transport (2.3%)
 Rail (1.8%)
 Between 2010 and 2017, Policies supporting energy
efficiency in the transport sector increased rapidly
For example support for electric vehicles for passenger transport
spread far more rapidly
 Energy Intensity of transport is determined by
Growth in demand within each transport sector (transport of
goods and people by air, sea and land)
Shifts between transport modes of varying energy intensity
(aviation, marine, rail and road)
Changes in capacity utilization rates (the average share of
vehicle capacity occupied per journey)
Improvements in the inherent energy efficiency of transport
vehicles used.
 Between 2000 & 2017 In IEA* member countries, energy
use in passenger transport grew only 2.8%
While overall passenger travel increased 7.1%.
Energy use in freight transport increased 65%.(because of an
overall global shift from rail transport to roads
* International Energy Agency (IEA) member countries as
well as Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the
Russian Federation and South Africa.
Thank you