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# Chapter 1:

RATE OF
REACTION
TYPE OF RATE OF REACTION

Fast reaction
: Take a shorter time for
reaction to complete Slow Reaction
 therefore rate of reaction : Take a longer time for reaction
is higher to complete
 Therefore, rate of reaction is
lower

## Rate of reaction is inversely propotional to the time of the reaction

Fotosynthesis process
6CO2(g) + 6H2O → C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g)

## AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

Rusting of iron
4Fe(s) + 3O2 + xH2O → 2Fe2O3•xH2O(s)

Precipitation of Sulfur
HCl(aq) + Na2S2O3 → 2NaCl(aq) + S(s) + SO2(g) + H2O(l)
Reaction between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid
Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

## 2Mg(s) + 02 (g) 2MgO(s)

Classify the types of reactions to fast reaction
and slow reaction

## Fast reaction Slow reaction

DEFINITION RATE OF
REACTION

Is a measurement of the change in quantity of reactant or
product against time.

## Rate of reaction = change in quantity of reactant/product

time taken for the change to occur
The observation for rate of reaction
When the reaction occur

## The reactant will decrease with time

While the product will increase with time
The changes that can be observed
1

## 5 Formation of precipitate as a product

Method of measurement rate of reaction

## Volume of gas liberated = Volume of gas liberated

time taken
(Reaction between magnesium and
hydrokloric acid to form hydrogen gas)

Pecipitation: ∝ 1
Reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid
Time taken for precipitation
and sodium thiosulphate
Measurement Rate of Reaction

■ Definisi
Rate of Reaction :Changes in the quantity of the reactant or the product of the reaction against
time.

## ► Rate of reaction = Changes in the quantity of the reactant

Time taken
 Change in the quantity of products per unit time.

## Rate of reaction = quantity of product formed

Time taken
The rate of reaction can be measured as

 AVARAGE RATE OF REACTION : the average rate that took place over a certain period of time
.

time taken

:.

## ○ instantaneous Rate of Reaction = Gradient of the curve

= Change in axis-y
Change in axis-x
Measurement of Rate of Reaction
✍ Example 1.1(a)
In one experiment, 5.0 g of calcium carbonate requires 250 seconds to
react with excess hydrochloric acid. Calculate this average rate of reaction in
units:

a.g s-1
b.mol s-1
[Jisim atom relatif: C, 12; O, 16; Ca, 40]
✍ Example 1.1(b)
In one experiment, zinc powder was added to the dilute hydrochloric acid. Accumulated gas bubbles.
Volume of collected gas is recorded every 20 seconds. The following table shows the results obtained.
Dalam satu eksperimen, serbuk zink ditambahkan kepada asid hidroklorik cair. Gelembung-gelembung
keputusan yang diperolehi.

## Time (s) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Volume of 0 8.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 22.0 22.0
gas(cm3)

a. Draw the graph of total volume of gas against time on graph paper.
b. Based on the plotted graph, determine the rate of reaction at time
i) 30 seconds
ii) 80 seconds
c. Based on the plotted graph, determine the average reaction rate in
i. 50 seconds
ii. The first 100 seconds
Effective Practice A pg 8
HOMEWORK:

MODULE
M.S. 13-15
Size of reactant
► When solids react with liquids or gases, the size of the solid reaction material will affect the rate of
reaction.

►The smaller the size of the reactant, the greater total surface area exposed to the
reaction.
► Therefore, the rate of reaction will be higher
.
► The following graph shows the effect of the surface area of the reaction material on the rate of
reaction of the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid
tindak balas antara kalsium karbonat dan asid hidroklorik.
Effect of Concentration
► The concentration of the reactant affects the rate of reaction of a liquid substance

► The higher the concentration, the higher the number of particles per volume unit.
► Therefore, the rate of reaction will be higher.
TYPE OF GRAPHS FOR RATE OF REACTION
CONCENTRATION VS TIME CONCENTRATION VS 1/TIME

Concentration/Kepekatan Concentration/Kepekatan
Effect of Temperature
Kesan suhu
► When temperature of the reaction increases, more particles gain a high kinetic
energy.
► Therefore, the rate of reaction will be higher.
► The following graph shows the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction of the reaction between
calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid
Temperature vs time Temperature vs 1/time
Effect of Catalyst
Kesan Mangkin

A substance that can alter the rate of chemical reaction but does not
affect the amount of reaction product]
Suatu bahan yang boleh mengubah kadar tindak balas kimia tetapi tidak
memberi kesan kepada jumlah hasil tindak balas]
.
Only a small number Specific actions
of catalysts are required. on specific
responses only.

## Characteristics The chemical properties are

unchanged at the end of the
Of catalyst. reaction. (It may change
physically)

## Only affect the rate of reaction

. (The positive catalyst will increase the rate of reaction
negative catalyst will reduce the rate of reaction
► The following graph shows the effect of the catalyst on the rate of reaction for decomposition of
hydrogen peroxide by manganese (IV) oxide
Graf berikut menunjukkan kesan mangkin ke atas kadar tindak balas bagi penguraian hydrogen
peroksida yang dimangkinkan oleh serbuk mangan (IV) oksida

## ○ Observation: Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to release oxygen gas.

○ An appropriate method for measuring the rate of reaction: Volume oxygen gas liberated
.
The effect of pressure on the rate of reaction
► Pressure will affect the rate of reaction of the gas-forming reaction

► When gas pressure increases, the gas particles will collide more often
.

.

## ► The Haber process is carried out at a pressure of 200-500 atmospheres.

.
REACTION

REACTION
Solving problems involving the factors affecting the rate of reaction.

• Example :
• Two experiments carried out to determine the rate of producing oxygen gas during the
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. In experiment I, 20 cm 3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrogen
peroxide were used and the results of the experiment are shown on graph 1 below:

## Volume of oxygen a) Sketch a graph on the same axes to

cm3
show the results of the
v experiments that will be obtained if
Graph 1 5 cm3 of 4 mol dm-3 hydrogen
peroxide were used for the
reaction.
Time ,s
c) State the controlled variables for
both the experiments.
16/1/2018 selasa 5sc1 37
1/13/2020 38
✍ Contoh 1.2(a) helaian edar
Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kadar tindak balas di antara serbuk
zink dan asid hidroklorik pada kepekatan yang berbeza.
kesan kepekatan ke atas kadar tindak balas.

## Eksperimen I: 50cm3 1mol dm-3 HCl dalam serbuk zink berlebihan.

Eksperimen II: 100cm3 2mol dm-3 HCl dalam serbuk zink berlebihan.
Eksperimen III: 150cm3 0.5mol dm-3 HCl dalam serbuk zink berlebihan.
Eksperimen IV: 25cm3 1.5mol dm-3 HCl dalam serbuk zink berlebihan.
Eksperimen V: 100cm3 0.5mol dm-3 HCl dalam serbuk zink berlebihan.

1.3: Collision Theory
Teori Perlanggaran
 ► Chemical reactions can occur when
 collisions between particles occur
Untuk tindak balas boleh berlaku, perlanggaran berkesan mesti berlaku.

■ Perlanggaran berkesan
the reacting particles must be collide with each other to produce reaction :
Zarah-zarah bahan tindak balas mesti berlanggar antara satu sama lain untuk menghasilkan tindak balas
a) collide with each other
# in correct orientation, so that the breaking and formation of chemical bonds can occur
# posses energy that is equal to, or more than the minimum energy (activation energy)

## – ► Animasi berikut menunjukkan perlanggaran di antara zarah-zarah.

Activation Energy

## ► Total minimum energy needed to start chemical

reaction.
.
► Gambarajah aras tenaga boleh
perubahan tenaga yang berlaku dalam
tindak balas kimia.
Endothermic
Exothermic
reaction
reaction (release
(absorbs heat
heat energy)
energy)

## Energy profile diagram

Video berikut mengandungi maklumat mengenai perlanggaran berkesan dan tenaga pengaktifan.
Contoh:
Tindak balas hidrogen dan chlorin untuk
menghasilkan hidrogen chloride gas

## H2(g) + Cl2(g) → 2HCl(g)

Penggunaan teori perlanggaran untuk
– ► Relationship between frequency of effective collision and rate of reaction
– ○ The higher the frequency of effective collision the higher the rate of reaction

## – ► Relationship of activation energy and rate of reaction

– The higher the activation energy the lower the rate of reaction
– While
– The lower the activation energy the higher the rate of reaction
– Collision theory and affect of size of particle(jumlah luas permukaan)

 The smaller the size of the reactant, the greater total surface area exposed to the
reaction.
 Frequency of collision increase
 Frequency of effective collision increase
► Therefore, the rate of reaction will be increase
Collision theory and effect of concentration

► The higher the concentration , the higher the number of particle per unit volume

## ► The higher the Rate of reaction.

.
Effective collision and affect of temperature

► When temperature of the reaction increases, more particles gain a high kinetic energy.

## ► Therefore, the rate of reaction will be higher.

Collision theory and effect of catalyst

► Mangkin mengubah kadar tindak balas dengan mengubahkan tenaga pengaktifan.

■ Mangkin Positif

► Menyediakan laluan tindak balas yang memerlukan tenaga pengaktifan yang lebih rendah.

► Lebih banyak zarah akan mempunyai tenaga yang cukup untuk mengatasi tenaga pengaktifan yang lebih
rendah.

## ► Oleh itu, ia mempercepatkan kadar tindak balas.

■ Mangkin Negatif

► Melambatkan kadar tindak balas dengan meningkatkan tenaga pengaktifan tindak balas supaya
frekuensi perlanggaran berkesan dikurangkan.
Collision theory and pressure
■ Pressure will affect the rate of reaction of the gas-forming reaction

► When gas pressure increases, the gas particles will collide more often because the particles become closer to
each other

## ► Therefore, the rate of reaction is higher.

► Frequency of collision increase
► Frequency of effective collision increase
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial Processes

• Combustion of charcoal

• 1 Large pieces of charcoal will not catch fire easily because the total
surface area exposed to oxygen is small.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

• Combustion of charcoal

## • 2 If small pieces of charcoal are used, they can burn easily.

• This is because the total surface area exposed to the air increases.
• Thus, the rate of reaction with oxygen (combustion) increases.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 1 The decomposition and decay of food is a chemical reaction caused by

the action of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.
• These microorganisms multiply very rapidly at the temperature range of 10-
60 °C.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 2 Room temperature is the optimum temperature for the

breeding of microorganisms in food.
• As a result, food turns bad quickly at room temperature.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • Storing food in refrigerators

• 3 At low temperatures, for
example, 5 °C (the normal
temperature of a refrigerator),
the activities of bacteria are
slowed down.
• Hence, food that is kept in a
refrigerator will last longer
because the decaying reaction
that destroys the food can be
slowed down.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes
• Storing food in refrigerators
• 4 In the supermarkets, fish, meat and other types of fresh foods are kept in
deep-freeze compartments where the temperature is about -20 °C.
• This keeps the food fresh for a few months because the very low temperature
slows down the chemical reactions that cause the food to decay.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 1 Pressure cookers are used to speed up cooking.

Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • Cooking food in pressure cookers

• 2 In the pressure cooker, the higher pressure enables water or oil to boil at
a temperature higher than their normal boiling points.
• Furthermore, an increase in pressure causes an increase in the number of
water molecules or cooking oil molecules coming into contact and colliding
with the food particles.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 3 At a higher temperature and pressure, the rate of reaction becomes

higher.
• Thus, food cook faster in pressure cookers.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • Uses of catalysts in industry

• 1 From the economic point of view, catalysts play a vital role in industrial
processes.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 2 Catalysts do not increase the yields of reactions.

• However, catalysts are used widely in industrial processes to speed up the
rates of reactions so that the same amount of products can be obtained in a
shorter time.
• As a result, the use of catalysts brings down the cost of production.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • Uses of catalysts in industry

• 3 In the chemical industry, small pellets of solid catalysts are used instead
of big lumps.
• This is to give a larger surface for catalytic reaction to occur and hence a
faster reaction will result.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes
• The manufacture of ammonia (Haber process)
• 1 The Haber process is an industrial process for the manufacture of
ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 2 Nitrogen and hydrogen do not react at room temperature and pressure.

• High temperature and pressure and the presence of a catalyst are required
for nitrogen to react with hydrogen.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 3 The optimum conditions for obtaining a maximum yield of ammonia in

the Haber process are as follows:

## • (a) Temperature: 450-550 oC

• (b) Pressure : 200-500 atmospheres
• (c) Catalyst: Finely divided iron (Fe)
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 4 In terms of industrial processes, a temperature of 450 °C is considered

as moderately high but the rate of reaction is slow at this temperature.
• Thus, a catalyst is required to increase the rate of reaction.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 5 In the Haber process, ammonia is produced when a mixture of nitrogen

and hydrogen (in the ratio of 1:3 by volume) is passed over finely divided iron
as catalyst at 450-500 °C and 200-500 atmospheres.
• Under these conditions, about 10% yield of ammonia is obtained.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 1 The contact process is the industrial process for the manufacture of

sulphuric acid from sulphur and oxygen.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • The manufacture of sulphuric add (Contact process)

• Raw materials required: sulphur, air and water.

## • Conditions for the reaction of SO2 with O2 (from the air):

• (a) Temperature: 450-500 °C
• (b) Pressure: 1-2 atmospheres
• (c) Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

• 2 The following reaction scheme shows the steps involved in the manufacture of sulphuric
acid:
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 3 In Step 2, sulphur dioxide is oxidised to sulphur trioxide.

• The mixture of sulphur dioxide and oxygen is passed over vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5, as
catalyst at 450-500 °C and a pressure of 1-2 atmospheres to form sulphur trioxide.

## • Under these conditions, a yield of 98% of sulphur trioxide is obtained.

Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • 1. The Ostwald process is used to manufacture nitric acid.

• Raw materials required: ammonia, air and water
• Conditions:

## • (a) Temperature: 900 ° C

• (b) Pressure: 1-8 atmospheres
• (c) Catalyst: platinum
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes

## • The manufacture of nitric acid (Ostwald process)

• The following reaction scheme shows the steps involved in the manufacture of nitric acid.
Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction in daily
life and in industrial processes
• The manufacture of nitric acid (Ostwald process)

• 2 In the Ostwald process, nitrogen monoxide, NO, is produced (step 1) when ammonia
gas is passed over the platinum (Pt) catalyst at about 900 ° C and 1-8 atmospheres.

## • In this reaction, ammonia is oxidised to nitrogen monoxide.

Penggunaan faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas dalam industri
■ Pengeluaran ammonia oleh proses Haber

## ► N2(g) + 3H2(g) ⇌ 2NH3(g)

► Nitrogen dan hidrogen dicampurkan dalam nisbah isipadu 1: 3 akan mengalir melalui besi (mangkin) yang
dicampurkan dengan aluminium oksida pada suhu 450-550 ℃ dan tekanan optimum 200 atmosfera.

## ► Langkah I: Pengeluaran gas sulfur dioksida, SO2

S(s) + O2 → SO2(g)

## 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2SO3(g)

Campuran gas mengalir melalui vanadium (V) oksida, V2O5(mangkin) pada suhu 450-500 ℃ dan di tekanan 1
atmosfera.

## ► Langkah III: Pengeluaran asid sulfurik, H2SO4

SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) → H2S2O7(l)
Pengeluaran asid nitrik oleh proses Ostwald
► Langkah I: 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) ⇌ 4NO(g) + 6H2O(l)

## ► Langkah II: 2NO + 2O2(g) → 2NO2(g)

► Langkah III: NO(g) + O2(g) + 2H2O2(l) → 4HNO3

## ■ Peretakan Petroleum Hidrokarbon

► Alkana (molekul hidrokarbon yang besar) mengalir melalui aluminosilikat (mangkin) pada suhu kira-kira 500 ℃
dan tekanan 1 atmosfera.

■ Pembuatan marjerin

► Logam nickel digunakan dalam penghidrogenan minyak sayuran untuk membuat marjerin pada suhu kira-kira 180 ℃
dan tekanan 1 atmosfera.
1.2.1 - Aktiviti Makmal: Kesan Luas Permukaan ke atas Kadar Tindak Balas

Pernyataan masalah: Bagaimanakah jumlah luas permukaan bahan tindak balas mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas?
Hipothesis: Semakin besar luas permukaan bahan tindak balas yang terdedah, semakin tinggi kadar tindak balas.
Pembolehubah:
» Pembolehubah dimalarkan: Suhu dan kuantiti bahan tindak balas
» Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan: Saiz bahan tindak balas
» Pembolehubah bergerakbalas: Kadar tindak balas

Bahan:
» Ketulan kalsium karbonat
» Serbuk kalsium karbonat
» 0.2mol dm-3 Hidroklorik asid
» Buret
» Kon kelalang
» Silinder penyukat
» Jam randik
» Kaki retort dengan pengapit
» Besin
» Salur penghantaran
1. Satu buret yang penuh dengan air diterbalikkan ke dalam besin yang mengandungi air dan kemudian
diapit menegak dengan kaki retort.
2. Paras air dalam buret dilaraskan supaya isipadu air yang boleh dibaca dan bacaan buret awal direkodkan.
3. 5g ketulan kalsium karbonat ditimbang dan dimasukkan ke dalam kelalang kon.
4. 50cm3 asid hidroklorik, 0.2mol dm-3 diukur dengan silinder penyukat dan memasukkan ke dalam
kelalang kon.
5. Asid hidroklorik dituang ke dalam kelalang kon yang mengandungi ketulan kalsium karbonat dan ditutup
segera dengan salur penghantaran.
6. Jam randik dimulakan dengan serta-merta.
7. Kelalang kon digoncang perlahan-lahan dan isipadu gas yang terbebas diperhatikan dan direkodkan setiap
30 saat.
8. Eksperimen diulangi dengan menggantikan ketulan kalsium karbonat dengan 5g serbuk kalsium karbonat.
► Ketulan kalsium karbonat Serbuk kalsium karbonat
Masa(s) Bacaan buret (cm3)Isipadu gas (cm3) Masa (s) Bacaan buret (cm3)Isipadu gas (cm3)
0 50 0 0 50 0
30 46 4 30 40 10
60 42 8 60 35 15
90 40 10 90 31 19
120 37 13 120 26 24
150 35 15 150 23 27
180 33 17 180 20 30
210 31 19 210 17 33
240 29 21 240 14 36
270 27 23 270 12 38
300 25 25 300 10 40
Kadar tindak balas purata dalam 300 saat:

## ○ Kadar tindak balas purata ketulan kalsium karbonat = 25cm

3300s
= 0.083cm3s−1
○ Kadar tindak balas purata serbuk kalsium karbonat = 42cm
3300s
= 0.14cm3s−1

► Berdasarkan graf,
kecerunan bagi serbuk kalsium karbonat adalah lebih curam berbanding dengan ketulan kalsium karbonat. I
ni menunjukkan bahawa kadar tindak balas bagi serbuk kalsium karbonat lebih tinggi
Perbincangan:

► Kalsium karbonatbertindak balas dengan asid hidroklorik cair untuk menghasilkan karbon dioksida gas,
seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam persamaan berikut:
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

► Serbuk kalsium karbonat mempunyai jumlah luas permukaan terdedah yang lebih besar berbanding
dengan ketulan kalsium karbonat. Oleh itu, kadar tindak balas bagi serbuk kalsium karbonat lebih tinggi.

► Berdasarkan kepada keputusan eksperimen, kadar tindak balas berkurang dengan masa (kecerunan graf
yang berkurangan dengan masa yang semakin meningkat). Kepekatan asid hidroklorik dan jisim kalsium
karbonat berkurangan dengan masa.
Kesimpulan:

► Semakin kecil saiz bahan tindak balas, semakin tinggi kadar tindak balas