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Annotation of
We are Group 7:
RZL110 – B3

Based on other records, there had been no
evidences of texts that a Filipino depicted
its own history in their own perspective.




 Years 1889 to 1890, Rizal spent some time in London to improve

his skill in the English language.
 During this timeframe, he was into studying Pre-colonial
Philippines. Also believed that the pre-colonial Philippines already
had established a living hood and society and was not lethargic as
depicted by the Spaniards.
 In an attempt to prove his point, he found Antonio Morga’s
Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. He assiduously copied the entire
book with additional annotations.

After months of
historical research,
Rizal was able to:
Finish 639

Depict nuances
that Morga portrayed

And Pinpointed
typographical errors

Who is Morga?
Antonio de Morga Sánchez Garay
1559 - 1636

➢ Writer, jurist, administrator and Spanish

➢ Was a high-ranking colonial official for 43 years,
in the Philippines (1594 to 1604).
➢ He had the second-most powerful position in the
➢ Wrote Sucesos de las Islas.

Sucesos de
las Islas
Perhaps the best account of Spanish colonialism
in the Philippines written during that period, is
based partly on documentary research, partly on
keen observation, and partly on Morga's personal
involvement and knowledge.

Who is Pigafetta?
Antonio Pigafetta
1491 – 1531

➢ An Italian scholar and explorer from the

Republic of Venice.
➢ He joined the expedition to the Spice Islands led
by explorer Ferdinand Magellan.
➢ Served as Magellan's assistant and kept an
accurate journal.
➢ Wrote First Voyage Around the World.

First Voyage
Around the World
An Account of Magellan's Expedition by
Antonio Pigafetta. Pigafetta's surviving journal
is the source for much of what is known about
Magellan and Elcano's voyage.

Why did Rizal pick
Morga’s work?
Morga Pigafetta
 He was an unordained member of the  Was a religious chronicler.
church, which removed the influence  Antonio Pigafetta’s account of the
of religion on the writing. Magellan expedition was more
 Was not only an eyewitness but also a detailed, and closer to the point of first
major actor in the events he narrates, contact between the Philippines and
because he was a member of the Spain.
Spanish Government in-charge of the  Exaggerated writings.
Philippines at the time.
 Rizal thought Pigafetta’s writings to be
 Morga’s book was rare at the time. biased towards the Spanish people
 Unlike religious texts, Morga was rather than being objective.
more sympathetic to the Indios.

Morga’s work
through Rizal’s
 Antonio Regidor, a wealthy countryman, in exile in London
following the Cavite Mutiny of 1872, promised Rizal that he would
publish the work when completed. As an added incentive, Regidor
promised Rizal that as soon as he had recovered his investment in
the book, all profits would be divided equally between Rizal and
him as the publisher.
 Rizal, however, was a realist who accepted that scholarly books
such as the Morga would not be financially rewarding. He stated in
a letter to Blumentritt that his aim was simply to "present a new
edition to the public, above all the Filipino public . . . I do this
solely for my country, because this work will bring me neither
honor nor money" (Epistolario 1938)

 Rizal decided to publish the Morga himself.
 Months of Rizal’s hard work resulted in Sucesos de h ish Filipinas
por el Doctor Antonio de Morga Obra publicada en Mejico en el
atlo de 1609, Nummente Sacada a luz y Anotada por Jose Rizal, y
Precedida de un Prologo del Prof. Fernando Blumentn’tt
 An English translation of Rizal's Morga was commissioned and
published by the Jose Rizal National Centennial Commission in
1961, but has proven unsatisfactory compared with the most
popular English edition of Morga at present-that by J.S. Curnmins
published by the Hakluyt Society in 1971.

Rizal and Morga, a
Brave Duo.
 Rizal utilized Morga to discredit the work of the Dominican
chronicler Diego de Aduarte, whose Historia de la pmincia del
Sancto Rosatio de la orden & Predicadores en Philippinas (History
of the Province of the Holy Rosary of the Order of Preachers in the
Philippines) was published in Manila in 1640 and was considered
so authoritative it was often cia or repeated by later historians.
 Rizal took the friar chroniclers to task for going against their vows
of poverty. In one of his annotations, Rizal estimated the wealth
held by the religious corporations, particularly the Franciscans
and Dominicans, who owned much property and land in the

 Rizal argued that the pre-Hispanic Filipinos had their own cultuxe
before 1521, and thus were not saved from barbarism, and did not
require "civilization" or a new religion from Spain.
 Rizal argued that the pre-Hispanic Filipinos had their own cultuxe
before 1521, and thus were not saved from barbarism, and did not
require "civilization" or a new religion from Spain.

Rizal’s Annotations
 The importance of Rizal's annotations to Morga was' that he tried
to use history and historical revision, not just to express his
personal views on the historiography, but to create a sense of
national consciousness or identity.
 Rizal used history as a propaganda weapon against the abuses of
the colonial Spaniards.
 In his Historia de Ilocos de los Reyes upsets Rizal. De 10s Reyes
called attention to the discrepancy between some of Rizal's
annotations to Morga vis-a-vis his own research.


 No Filipino has ever

recorded their own Pre-
Hispanic history.
 Usually the ones who record
history are biased towards
their own cause and usually
the victors.

Any questions?