Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

DECISION MAKING AND

PROBLEM SOLVING
BY
HAMZA ZARIN
NIAMAT ULLAH
SAMAN SOHAIL
OBJECTIVES:

• At the end of this presentation the learners will be able to:

• 1. Define the terms decision making and problem solving.


• 2. Discuss the importance of critical thinking in decision making
• 3. State the importance of decision making and problem solving
• 4. Identify the types of decision making
• 5. Describe the models used for decision making
• 6. Describe the problem solving process.
Decisions

•Made up of a composite of information,


data, facts and belief.
•Data by itself does not constitute useful
information unless it is analyzed and
processed.
Decision-making

 As defined by Baker et al in their 2001


study, “efficient decision-making involves a
series of steps that require the input of
information at different stages of the
process, as well as a process for feedback”.
7
PROBLEM SOLVING…

 Basic intellectual process that has been refined and systemized for the various challenges
people face.
 Problem solving which involves a decision making steps focused on trying to an
immediate problems which can be viewed as a gap between “what is?” and “what should
be?”
 Problem makes leader better, not bitter
8
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO SOLVE PROBLEMS AT
WORK?
• People can get cross.
• Work does not get done.
• People are unhappy at work.
• Accidents can happen.
• Contracts can be lost.
• People leave work.

8
9
WHY DO WE NEED TO THINK CRITICALLY?

• To make accurate and appropriate clinical decisions


• To solve problems and find solutions
• To plan care for each unique client and client problem
• To seek knowledge and use it to make clinical decisions and problem solve
• To be able to think creatively when planning care for clients
11
TYPES OF DECISIONS

• Decisions made in the nursing service can be categorized depending upon the following criteria

How much time the manager spends in making decision?


What proportion of the organization must be involved in
making decision?
The organization function/ the nursing functions on which they
focus.
12
TYPES OF DECISIONS...

On the basis of these, there are three classifications:


1. Ends -Means
2. Administrative-Operational
3. Programmed-Non-programmed
TYPES OF DECISIONS...
13

1. Ends-Means
Ends: deals with the determination of desired individual or
organizational results to be achieved.
Means: decisions deal with strategic or operational programs,
activities that will accomplish desired results.
TYPES OF DECISIONS...
14

2. Administrative-Operational
• Administrative: made by senior management, which have
significant impact throughout the organization.
• Operational: are generally made by mid level and first line
managers and address day to day operational activities of a
particular organizational.
TYPES OF DECISIONS...
15

3. Programmed-Non-programmed
Programmed:- these are repetitive and routine in nature. Since
they can be programmed, procedures, rules and often manuals
are formulated to cover those situations.
Non-programmed:- unique and non- routine. This can be used in
emergency/urgent situation.
DECISION MAKING MODELS
16

The decision method you used depends on the following


circumstances.
Is the situation routine, predictable, complex, and uncertain?
Is the goal of the decision to make a decision conservatively
(just good enough) or optimally?
DECISION MAKING MODELS…
17

 Based on the above assumption there are four decision making


model.
I. Normative or Prescriptive DM model
II. Descriptive/ Behavioral DM model
III. Satisfying/ Conservative DM model
IV. Optimal DM model
DECISION MAKING MODELS…
18

I. Normative or Prescriptive DM model


 Used when the outcome is predictable, the
problem/situation is well structured.
 Information is objective.
 The decision is already prescribed.
Example: if one student get “F”, the student should take the
course again by adding.
DECISION MAKING MODELS…
19

II. Descriptive/ Behavioral DM model


 Used when the situation is complex, unpredictable, and
uncertain.
 You don’t know the outcome.
 Information is subjective and every person define or
interprets into different direction.
DECISION MAKING MODELS…
20

III. Satisfying/ Conservative DM model


 Used when information is gathered to meet the minimum
requirement for the objective of decision.
 This model is appropriate when critical, urgent, immediate
answer were needed within a short period of time.
DECISION MAKING MODELS…
21

IV. Optimal DM model


 The solutions/decisions are selected based on optimal
requirement for objective decision.
 Appropriate in the situation that needs time.
 This model is appropriate when non-critical, urgent,
immediate answer were needed within a short period of
time.
COMPARING THE DECISION-MAKING
PROCESS WITH THE NURSING PROCESS

DECISION-MAKING PROCESS SIMPLIFIED NURSING PROCESS

 Identify the decision


 Collect data
ASSESS

 Identify criteria for decision


 Identify alternatives PLAN

 Choose alternative
 Implement alternative
IMPLEMENT

 Evaluate steps in decision EVALUATE


THE IDEAL DECISION-MAKING
PROCESS
STEP 1 STEP 2
Define the problem Determine the requirements
that the solution to the
problem must meet

STEP 3 STEP 4
Establish goals that solving the Identify alternatives that will
problem should accomplish solve the problem

STEP 5 STEP 6
Develop valuation criteria Select a decision-making Tool
based on the goals

STEP 7 STEP 8
Apply the tool to select a Check the answer
preferred alternative to make sure it
solves the problem

The Decision-making Process (adapted from Baker et al, 2001)


PROBLEM SOLVING…
26

26
REFERENCES:

1. What is a problem? in S. Ian Robertson, Problem solving, Psychology Press,


2001.
2.^ Rubin, M.; Watt, S. E.; Ramelli, M. (2012). "Immigrants' social integration as a
function of approach-avoidance orientation and problem-solving
style". International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 36 (4): 498–
505. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.12.009