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Presentation

English
Topic:

Punctuation Marks
Group Name:

Anonymous
Group Members:

M.Usama Hassan M.Asad


M.Nouman Abrar Hussain
M.Kamran Malik Adnan
WHY DO WE NEED
PUNCTUATION?
Punctuation allows the authors writing
to be easy to read and understandable
for the reader.
There are many Punctuation Marks. Some important of them we are going to
discuss here which are as follows:
I) Exclamation Marks II) Hyphen
III) Colon IV) Semi Colon
V) Question Marks VI) Quotation Marks
VII) Ellipses VIII) Commas
IX) Apostrophe X) Full Stop
XI) Dash XII) Slash
!
 Exclamation points are sometimes called exclamation
marks.
 Use an exclamation point at the end of an exclamatory
sentence that is full of strong feelings (like joy, fear, anger
or surprise).
She loves me! She loves me! Who is she?
I’m going to be a banana in a television commercial!
 Put an exclamation point after a strong interjection at the
beginning of a sentence.
Yicks! The pickle truck turned over in the middle of
town.
-
 A hyphen is a short, horizontal line.
 Use a hyphen to connect parts of some compound nouns.
son-in-law
self-awareness
tractor-trailer
 Use a hyphen with –elect.
Mayor-elect,
Governor-elect,
President elect.
 Put a hyphen in a compound word between a prefix and a proper
noun or an adjective.
mid-July festival
pro-Middle East peace
 Use a hyphen to join the parts of a fractions when it is written out
as words.
two-fifths
three-sixteenths
five-eights
 Use hyphens when you spell out a word for emphasis.
I want this filthy, that’s f-i-l-t-h-y, room cleaned up immediately!
When I say no, I mean no! N-o.No!
 Put hyphen after some prefixes like ex-,self-, and all-
,expecially if the last letter of the prefix is the same as the first
letter of the word it’s connected to.
anti-inflammatory ex-mayor
re-elect pro-feminist
all-loving
:
A colon looks like two periods, one on top of the other.
Use a colon between the chapter and verse numbers when
referring to the parts of the Bible.
Genesis 1:7 (These refers to the book of Genesis, Chapter 1,
Verse 7).
Luke 3:15
Psalms 22:17
Use a colon after the greetings (salutation) to a formal or
business letter.
Dear Board of Directors: Dear Editor:
Dear Madam: Gentlemen:
To Whom it May Concern: Dear Sirs:
Use a colon after headings in a memo.
To: Larne From: John
Date: July 19, 2000
Use a colon to separate the hours from the minutes when you
write the time of day.
2:17a.m 8:05p.m
6:19p.m
Use a colon to separate a heading or an introductory label
from the words that follow it.
HEADLINE: Man falls Into Eyeglass Machine, Makes
Spectacle of himself.
;

 A semicolon looks like a period on top of a comma.


 Put a semicolon before certain conjunctions or other
connecting words and phrases that join independent
clauses in a compound sentence.

Carlos was rich; however, he took the subway to work.


Ladi paid for the gas; therefore, she should get to drive.
?
Here are the rules to use Question Mark.
 Rule 1. Use a question mark only after a direct question.
Correct: Will you go with me?
Incorrect: I'm asking if you will go with me?
 Rule 2. A question mark replaces a period at the end of
a sentence.
Incorrect: Will you go with me?.
Correct: Will you go with me?
 Rule 3. Avoid the common trap of using question marks with indirect
questions, which are statements that contain questions. Use a period after
an indirect question.
Incorrect: I wonder if he would go with me?
Correct: I wonder if he would go with me.

 Rule 4. Some sentences are statements—or demands—in the form of


a question. They are called Rhetorical Questions because they don't
require or expect an answer. Many should be written without question
marks.
• Examples:
Why don't you take a break.
What wouldn't I do for you!
 Rule 5. Use a question mark when a sentence is half statement
and half question.
• Example:
You do care, don't you?
 Rule 6. The placement of question marks with quotation marks
follows logic. If a question is within the quoted material, a
question mark should be placed inside the quotation marks.
• Examples:
She asked, "Will you still be my friend?"
The question Will you still be my friend? is part of the quotation.

Do you agree with the saying, "All's fair in love and war"?
The question Do you agree with the saying? is outside the
quotation.
“”
Here are the rules to use Quotation Mark.
 Rule 1. Use double quotation marks to set off a direct (word-for-word)
quotation.
Correct: "I hope you will be here," he said.
Incorrect: He said that he "hoped I would be there." (The quotation marks are
incorrect because hoped I would be there does not state the speaker's exact words.)
 Rule 2a. Always capitalize the first word in a complete quotation, even
midsentence.
• Example:
Lamarr said, "The case is far from over, and we will win."
 Rule 2b. Do not capitalize quoted material that continues a sentence.
• Example:
Lamarr said that the case was "far from over" and that "we will win."
 Rule 3. Use commas to introduce or interrupt direct quotations.

• Examples:
He said, "I don't care."
"Why," I asked, "don't you care?"

This rule is optional with one-word quotations.

• Example: He said "Stop."


 Rule 4. Periods and commas ALWAYS go inside quotation marks.

• Examples:
The sign said, "Walk." Then it said, "Don't Walk," then, "Walk," all within thirty
seconds.
He yelled, "Hurry up."
 Rule 5. The placement of question marks with quotation marks follows logic. If
a question is within the quoted material, a question mark should be placed
inside the quotation marks.

• Examples:
She asked, "Will you still be my friend?"
The question Will you still be my friend? is part of the quotation.

Do you agree with the saying, "All's fair in love and war"?
The question Do you agree with the saying? is outside the quotation.
 Rule 6. Quotation marks are used for components, such as chapter titles
in a book, individual episodes of a TV series, songs from a Broadway
show or a music album, titles of articles or essays in print or online, and
shorter works such as short stories and poems.
• Example:
Richard Burton performed the song "Camelot" in the 1960 Broadway
musical Camelot.
 Rule 7. Quotation marks are often used with technical terms, terms used
in an unusual way, or other expressions that vary from standard usage.
• Examples:
It's an oil-extraction method known as "fracking."
He did some "experimenting" in his college days.
I had a visit from my "friend" the tax man.
Ellipses are used to indicate missing or omitted material,
but ONLY for quoted material!
1. Use an ellipses to show deleted words:

Smith (2012) acknowledges that treatment for autism is


expensive: “Sensory therapy...can cost up to $200 per hour.”
(3 dots)
2. Use an ellipses to show deleted sentences:
Jackson, a researcher with the CDC, explained: “AIDS is still
a massive problem…. It is a pressing health issue.”
(4 dots)
(Do not use ellipses at the beginning of quoted material, but
use them at the end of sentences (MLA only).)
,

 Put a comma between independent clauses of equal value


when there are three or more, and they don’t have commas
in them.

Katie bought the food, Tommy cooked the meal, and Essie
washed the dishes.
 Put a comma after the close of any letter (personal or
business, friendly or not).
Sincerely yours, Love,
Best regards, Warmest wishes,
 Put a comma after the greeting of a personal letter.
Dear Aunt Paula, Hi, Max,
 Put a comma to avoid confusion (by making the reader
pause slightly).
Shortly after, the carnival shut down.
Miriam rolled on, on her new roller skates.
Use commas to set off appositives.
An appositive is a noun that comes after another noun(or
noun phrase) and gives additional information about it. An
appositive can come in the middle or end of a sentence.
e.g.

Dr. William, the headmaster of our school, never shouts.

One person who never shouts is Dr. William, the


headmaster of our school.
 Use commas to set off expressions or words that brake the
flow of thought at the beginning or in the middle of a
sentence.

Well, I didn’t realize he was seven feet tall when I said I


would go out on a date with him.
At that time, however, the goat still lived in the house.

 Apostrophes are used in three different ways:
i. In possessive nouns
ii. in contractions
iii. to make letters, signs, symbols, and numbers plural
Possessive Nouns.
“To possess” means “to own.” So possessive nouns show
ownership.
A. Singular Possessive Nouns:
Add ‘s to make any singular noun Possessive.
e.g.
The bird’s wings were green and blue.
Monica’s hat blew across the street.
B. Plural Possessive Nouns:
If the last letter of a plural noun is s, just add an apostrophe to make the noun
possessive.
If the last letter of a plural noun is not s, add ‘s to make the noun possessive.
Plural nouns that Possessive forms
end with the letter s (add just an apostrophe)
babies babies’
teachers teaches’
girls girls’
Plural nouns that don’t Plural possessive forms
end with the letter s (add ‘s)
children children’s
geese geese’s
men men’s
Contractions:
Use an apostrophe in a contraction to show where the missing letter or letters
used to be.
“To contract means to shorten.” The two words being contracted are usually
a pronoun + a verb (I + will= I’ll) or
a verb + “not” (did + not= didn’t).

Common contractions:
can’t=cannot she’ ll=she will
doesn’t=does not we’d=we would/had
he’s=he is we’re=we are
I’d=I would/had we’ve=we have
mightn’t=might not would’ve=would have
needn’t=need not you’re=you are
Use apostrophe to make letters, numbers, symbols
signs, and punctuation marks plural.
Sometimes when you are writing, you have to make something plural
that isn’t a word.
Add ‘s to make a letter plural.
e.g.
Your a’s look just like your u’s because you don’t close the tops.
Her handwriting is weird. She dots her e’s and crosses her b’s.
Add ‘s or just s to make a number or a decade plural.
with an apostrophe:
e.g. In the late 1960’s, American astronauts went to the moon.
Does your phone number have 4’s or three?
.

A full stop is used at the end of a sentence, unless the


sentence calls for a question mark (?) or an exclamation
mark (!).

Example, Joyce went to the shop.


-
A dash signals an interruption or a break in thought –
similar to a comma! Dashes set off text that you want to
stress or emphasize
1) … with appositives (nouns that follow other nouns to
describe them): James – a pretty clever fellow – won the
contest easily..
2) … to set off emphasized information: Everything that was
broken – from the cracked window to the worn‐out carpet –
was blamed on the dog.

3) … to introduce a list or restatement: Lately, Peter has been


making changes in his life – reading more books and exercising
more regularly.
/
 The slash (/) is also known as: forward slash, stroke, oblique.
You should use the slash with care in formal writing.

1. A slash is often used to indicate "or":


Dear Sir/Madam (Sir or Madam)
Please press your browser's Refresh/Reload button. (Refresh or
Reload)
 Do not over-use the slash to indicate "or". It can suggest
laziness on the part of the writer. The "and/or" construction is
widely considered to be very bad form.
2. Use a slash for fractions:

1/2 (one half)

2/3 (two thirds)


4. People often use a slash in certain abbreviations:

This is my a/c number. (account)

John Brown, c/o Jane Green (care of)

n/a (not applicable, not available)

w/o (without)