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CHAPTER 2

Composites

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OUTLINE
• Introduction

• Types of Composite

• Fabrication of Composite

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Composite
• Macroscopic combinations of metallic, ceramic,
and/or polymeric materials having an identifiable
interface between them

• Most commonly, composite materials consist of;


(i) matrix - a bulk phase, which is continuous
(ii) reinforcement - a dispersed, non-continuous,
phase which is usually harder and stronger.

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Concept of composites :
•The matrix accepts the load over a large
surface area, and transfers it to the
reinforcement, which being stiffer, increases
the strength of the composite.

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Components in Composites
1) Matrix

Polymers – polymer matrix composite (PMC)

Metals – metal matrix composite (MMC)

Ceramics - ceramic matrix composite (CMC)

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2) Reinforcement

 Glass
 Carbon/Graphite
 Organic
 Boron
 Ceramic
 Metallic

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3) Interface
•The interface is a bonding surface between
matrix and reinforcement

•The matrix material must "wet" the


reinforcement. Coupling agents are frequently
used to improve wettability.

•Well "wetted" fibers increase the interface


surface area.

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•To obtain desirable properties in a composite, the
applied load should be effectively transferred
from the matrix to the fibers via the interface

•Bonding with the matrix can be either weak Van


der Walls forces or strong covalent bonds

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Matrix :

 Binding the reinforcement phase in


place

to distribute the stresses among the


constituent reinforcement materials
under an applied force

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Reinforcement:

 provide strength

 heat resistance / conduction

Resistance to corrosion

Provide rigidity- must be stronger and stiffer


than matrix & capable of changing failure
mechanism.
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MATERIALS SCIENCE 11
Types of composites
• Composite are classified firstly according to the
matrix – PMC,CMC & MMC.

• In addition – classified according to the types (form)


of reinforcements or fillers used.

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A classification scheme for the various composite types according
to the types of reinforcement

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A classification scheme for the various composite types according
to the types of reinforcement

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Particle reinforced composites

• Particulate composites
have particles as
fillers or reinforcements

• Particles are in the form


of rods, spheres, flakes Dispersion strengthened
composites
or others
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Schematic representations of the various geometrical & spatial characteristics
of particles of the dispersed phase that may influence the properties of
composites:
(a) concentration, (b) size, (c) shape, (d) distribution and (e) orientation.
A classification scheme for the various composite types according
to the types of reinforcement

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• Fiber reinforced composites (FRP) are composites
prepared by the incorporation of fibers into plastic
material

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Fiber Reinforced Composites
• Influence of fiber length
The mechanical characteristics of a fiber-reinforced composite
depend not only on the properties of the fiber, but also on the
degree to which an applied load is transmitted to the fibers
by the matrix phase.

Some critical fiber length is necessary for effective


strengthening and stiffening of the composite material.

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Influence of fiber orientation and
concentration
• Continuous and Aligned Fiber Composites

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Elastic behavior- (Longitudinal loading)
ISOSTRAIN CONDITIONS

- In this case the stress on the


material causes uniform strain
on all the composite layers.

- Assume the bonding between


the layers remains intact
during the stressing.

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Elastic behavior- (Longitudinal loading)
• Isostrain condition:
Under these conditions, the total load sustained by the composite Fc is
equal to the sum of the loads carried by the matrix phase Fm and the
fiber phase Ff

• Modulus of elasticity of a continuous and aligned fibrous composite in


the direction of alignment (or longitudinal direction), Ecl

because the composite


consists of only matrix
and fiber phases; that is,
Vm + Vf = 1.
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Elastic behavior- (Longitudinal loading)

• Ratio of load carried by the fiber and matrix

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Formula derivation from
reference book
Elastic behavior- (Longitudinal loading)

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Elastic behavior- (Longitudinal loading)

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Elastic behavior- (Longitudinal loading)

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Example 1

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Solution Example 1

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Solution Example 1

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Elastic Behavior—Transverse Loading

• ISOSTRESS
• The load is applied at a 90
angle to the direction of
fiber alignment as shown in
Figure below.

• The stress  to which the


composite as well as both
phases are exposed is the
same.
Elastic Behavior—Transverse Loading

• Modulus of elasticity
Longitudinal Tensile strength

It is desired to fabricate a continuous and aligned glass fiber–


reinforced polyester having a tensile strength of at least 1250 MPa in
the longitudinal direction. The maximum possible specific gravity is
1.8. Using the data in Table , determine whether such a composite is
possible. Justify your answer. Assume a value of 20 MPa for the stress
on the matrix at fiber failure.

Specific Gravity Tensile Strength (MPa)


Glass Fiber 2.50 3500
Polyester 1.35 50
Solution
A classification scheme for the various composite types according
to the types of reinforcement

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Laminar composites in which
the reinforcement is in planar form
produced by stacking the layers or plies

Unidirectional Crossplied
Laminates 36
Sandwich panels considered to be a class of
structural composites, are designed to be
lightweight beams or panels having relatively
high stiffness and strengths.

Sandwich panels
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Sandwich panels
• A sandwich panel consists of two outer sheets, or faces, that
are separated by and adhesively bonded to a thicker core.

• The outer sheets - impart high stiffness and strength to the


structure and must be thick enough to withstand tensile and
compressive stresses that result from loading. (2m)

• The core - provides continuous support for the faces. In


addition, it must have sufficient shear strength to withstand
transverse shear stresses and also be thick enough to
provide high shear stiffness (to resist buckling of the panel).

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Applications of Structural Composites

Laminate floor Roofing panels

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Fabrication of Composites
• PMC (Polymer Matrix Composites)
1) Hand Lay-Up Method
2) Spray-Up Method
3) Filament winding
4) Pultrusion
5) Compression molding
6) Vacuum Bagging/Autoclaving
7) Wet flow methods – Injection molding, Resin
transfer molding

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Hand Lay-Up Method

Pouring the resin over


the reinforcement in the
mold

Using the roller to


densify the laminate to
remove entrapped air

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Spray-Up Method

Chopped fibers and resin are sprayed


simultaneously into or onto the mold
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