Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 57

Radiographic

Film
OBJECTIVES:
a. Discuss the construction of
radiographic film.
b. Describe the formation of latent
image.
c. List and define the characteristics of
x-ray film.
d. Identify the types of film used in
medical imaging.
e. Explain proper film handling and
storage.
• The primary purpose of
diagnostic radiologic
apparatus and
techniques is to transfer
information from an x-
ray beam to the eye-
brain complex of the
radiologist.
• The x-ray beam that
emerges from the x-ray
tube is nearly uniformly
distributed in space.
TERMINOLOGIES
• Primary radiation- the radiation
produced in the tube
• Useful or primary beam- the
radiation that passes through
the window of the tube
• Leakage radiation- x-rays other
than primary beam
TERMINOLOGIES
• Secondary radiation- the
radiation generated in the
patient’s body

• IMAGE RECEPTOR - the medium


that converts x-ray beam into
visible image
TERMINOLOGIES
• Scatter radiation- the radiation
that has interacted with the
patient direction & energy

• Remnant or exit radiation-


refers to the x-rays that remain
as the useful beam that exits
the patient
Types of X-Ray Interaction
• A- X-rays scatter
by Compton
interactions
• B- X-rays absorbed
by photoelectric
absorption
• C- X-rays that exit
the patient
without
interaction.
Exit Beam/ Remnant Radiation
• refers to the x-rays
that remain as the
useful beam that exits
the patient.
• It consists of the x-
rays scattered
away from the
image receptor and
image forming rays.
Radiographic film vs. Photographic film

• The construction and


characteristics of radiographic film
are similar to those regular
photographic film.

• However, radiographic film is


manufactured with rigorous quality
control and has a spectral response
different from that of photographic
film.
Radiographic Film Components
Radiographic
Film has
two basic
parts.
• Base
• Emulsion
Radiographic Film
Components
• 1. Transparent base
 Provides a surface and support for
the emulsion
 The base is usually tinted blue to

reduce light glare , eyestrain and


fatigue.
 The amount of tint varies per
specifications of different
manufacturers
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY
• A property of a radiographic
film base that enables film to
maintain its size and shape
during use and processing so
that it does not contribute to
image distortion.
RADIOGRAPHIC FILM BASE
Materials used as film base:
1. Glass Plate
2. Cellulose Nitrate
3. Cellulose Triacetate
4. Polyester
Radiographic Film
Components
2. Emulsion Layer
 This is the active layer

 It contains fine crystals of silver

bromide
 These crystals are evenly
dispersed into a gelatin
 The gelatin acts as a suspension

agent and prevents the crystals


from adhering to one another
SILVER HALIDE CRYSTALS

• 98% Silver Bromide


• 2% Silver Iodide
• Silver Bromide is most common because
of its sensitivity to the colors of light
emitted from screens and to radiation.
Ordinary Silver T-grain
Bromide Emulsion
TABULAR GRAIN EMULSION
• Most superior to the types of
crystals because they are flat
and can be evenly distributed
which eliminated the problem
of structure mottle, which
gives the image a desirable
grainy appearance.
MANUFACTURING
• The manufacturers closely guard the
mixture they use to manufacture
their film.

• Manufacture is in total darkness with


protection for radiation. From the
time that the emulsion ingredients
are brought together until the film is
packaged, no light is present.
Formation of Latent Image
Formation of Latent Image

1.Radiation
interaction
releases
electrons.

Br¯ + photon→ Br + e¯
Formation of Latent Image

2. These
electrons
migrate to
the
sensitivity
center.
Formation of Latent Image
Br¯ + photon→ Br + e¯
3. Once a sensitivity
center captures a
photoelectron &
becomes more
electrically
charged, the
center is
attractive to
mobile interstitial
silver ions.
Br¯ + photon→ Br + e¯

The halide atoms are


removed from the
crystal, the positive
silver ions are
electrostatically
attracted to the
sensitivity center.
Br¯ + photon→ Br + e¯

The silver ions now


combines with the
electrons trapped at
the sensitivity
center to form
metallic silver
atoms.

e¯ + Ag+ → Ag
Br¯ + photon→ Br + e¯

The process is
repeated many
times, resulting
in build up of
atoms.

This group of silver


atoms is called a
latent image.
Producing the Latent Image
A Radiation interaction
releases electrons.

B Electrons migrate to
the sensitivity center.

C At the sensitivity
center, atomic silver is
formed by attracting
an interstitial silver
ion.
Producing the Latent Image

D The process is
repeated many
times resulting in
the build up of silver
atoms.

E The remaining silver


halide is converted
to silver during
processing.
Producing the Latent Image

F The resulting silver


grain is formed.
SENSITIVITY SPECK/ CENTER
• The imperfections found in
the crystal structure.
• The chemical mixture
involved in the production of
tiny crystals does not
produce a perfect structure.
Types of X-ray Film
Two main types:
1. Screen film used with intensifying
screens.
–Single emulsion- emulsion on one
side of base.
–Double emulsion used with two
screens.
Types of X-ray Film

2. Direct exposure film or non-screen


film.
Direct Exposure or Non
Screen Film Screen Films
Film Types
 Used w/o intensifying screens

 Used mainly for extremities,

previously for mammography


 Requires 10 – 100 times more

the exposure dose


 The emulsion is thicker than

screen film
 Renders excellent detail
MAMMOGRAPHY FILM
• Single emulsion
• The surface of the base
opposite the screen is coated
with a special light-
absorbing dye to reduce
reflection of screen light.
LASER FILM
Film Types
 Uses a laser printer
 Provides excellent image

quality
 Sensitive to red light

 Must be processed in

complete darkness
LASER FILM
Film Types
 Single emulsion film
 Used in CT, MRI and Nuclear

Medicine
SPECIALTY FILMS
• Cine film
 Used with cardiac catheterization

 Produced in 16 and 35mm sizes

 Also used for radiography of the

esophagus
• Spot film
 Produced in 70 and 105mm sizes

 Used in fluoroscopy with a spot film

camera
SPECIALTY FILMS
• Video Film
 Exposes images displayed on
a video monitor
 Can format to present up to

16 images on one film


SUBTRACTION FILM
 A type of single emulsion film

used with angiography


 One type prepares a positive

copy of the image


 The other type enhances

subject contrast and detail


SCREEN-FILM FACTORS
• Main factors to be considered
when selecting film:

• Contrast & Speed


• Crossover
• Spectral matching
• Reciprocity Law
• Safelights
SPECTRAL MATCHING
 Refers to the correctly
matching of the color
sensitivity of the film to the
color of the screen.
SPECTRAL MATCHING
 Blue-sensitive film- used with
blue or blue-violet emitting
screens
- Calcium Tungstate Screens
(emit blue & blue-violet)
 Green-sensitive film- used
with green-emitting screen
- Rare Earth Screens (emit
UV, blue, green & red)
SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY
1. Panchromatic film- films
that are sensitive to all colors
-must be process in total
darkness
2. Orthochromatic film- films
that are sensitive to all colors,
except red.
SPEED

 The ability of the film to


respond to light or x-rays
 The greater the speed, the

more sensitive the film is.


TWO FACTORS AFFECTING SPEED
1.Size
2.Shape

The bigger the size, the higher


the speed.
CONTRAST
Film contrast- the inherent
characteristic of film contrast
that describes the ability of
the emulsion to record
minute differences in
densities across the film.
-the ability of radiographic
film to provide certain level
of image contrast.
CONTRAST
Subject contrast-is determine
by the size, shape & x-ray
attenuating characteristics of
the anatomy that is being
examined & the energy of the
beam
Radiographic contrast- the
degree of difference between
adjacent densities
CONTRAST
High-contrast emulsion-
contain smaller silver halide
grains with uniform grain
size

Low-contrast emulsion-
contains larger grains that
have different sizes
LATITUDE
Film latitude- is the inherent
characteristics in the film
emulsion that allows
moderate or acceptable
range of densities
LATITUDE
Exposure latitude- the range
of exposure techniques that
will produce an acceptable
image
CROSSOVER
 Light emitted from each screen
crossing over the film base
 Reduced by an anticrossover layer

and tabular grain emulsions


RECIPROCITY LAW

• It is the principle that states


that the Optical Density (OD)
of the radiograph is directly
proportional to energy
imparted on the film.
RECIPROCITY LAW

• Exposure = Intensity X Time

• This law can fail with screen


film.
 Usually with short or long

exposures
DETAIL

 The sharpness of the image


 The degree to which the

smallest structural lines of


anatomy can be recorded
 Depends on grain size

 The use of screens also affect

detail
PARALLAX EFFECT
• Light enters from an angle
affecting a particular spot on
the emulsion and travels to
the other side striking a spot
not exactly corresponding on
the image.
• Each of the following can have a
Film Handling
negative and Storage
effect upon film
contrast
 Improper handling

Causes artifacts
 Heat and humidity

Too much humidity can cause


the emulsion to swell
Too little humidity can cause
static to develop
Too much heat can fog film
Film Handling and Storage
 Light and radiation
Exposure to each can fog
film decreasing contrast
 Shelf life

Film loses speed, contrast


and begins to fog with age