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Primary Source: Eyewitness Account of

the Last Hours of Rizal

Source: Michael Charleston Chua, “Retraction ni

Jose Rizal: Mga Bagong Dokumento at
Pananaw,” GMA News Online, published 29
December 2016.
Most Illustrious Sir, the agent of the Cuerpo de Vigilancia stationed in
Fort Santiago to report on the events during the [illegible] day in prison
of the accused Jose Rizal, informs me on this date of the folliwing:

At 7:50 yesterday morning, Jose Rizal entered death row accompanied

by his counsel, Señor Taviel de Andrade, ang the Jesuit Priest Vilaclara.
At the urgings of the former ang moments after entering, he was
served a light breakfast. At approximately 9, the Assistant of the Plaza,
Señor maure, asked Rizal if he wanted anything. He replied that at the
moment he only wanted a prayer book, which was brought to him
shortly by Father March.
Señor Andrade left the death row at 10 ang Rizal spoke for a long while
with the Jesuit fathers, March and Vilaclara, regarding religious
matters, it seems. It appears that these two presented him with a
prepared retraction on his life and deeds that he refused to sign. They
argued about the matter until 12:30 when Rizal ate some poached egg
and a little chicken. Afterwards he asked to leave to write and wrote for
a long time by himself.

At 3 in the Afternoon, Father March entered the chapel and Rizal

handed him what he had written. Immediately the chief of the firing
squad, Señor del Fresno and the Assistant of the Plaza, Señor Maure,
were informed. They entered death row and together with Rizal signed
the document that the acused had written.
At 5 this morning of the 30th, the lover of Rizal arrived at the prison …
dressed in mourning. Only the former entered the chapel, followed by
a military chaplain whose name I cannot ascertain. Donning his formal
clothes and aided by a soldier of the artillery, the nuptials of Rizal and
the woman who had been his lover were performed at the point of
death ( in articulo mortis). After embracing him she left, flooded with
Rizal’s Connection to the Katipunan
- it is undeniable in fact, the precursor of the Katipunan as an
organization is the La Liga Filipina, an organization Rizal founded, with
Bonifacio as one of its member.
- Katipunan is established few days after Rizals’s exile on July 7
- 28 members of the leadership of the Katipunan (known as the
Kataas-taasang Sanggunian ng Katipunan) from 1892 tp 1896, 13 were
former members of La Iga Filipina, they even used Rizal’s name as
Case Study 4: Where Did the Cry of Rebellion Happen?

-Momentous events swept the Spanish colonies in the late nineteenth century,
including thePhilippines.
- Journalists of the time referred to the phrase “El Grito de Rebelion” or “Cry of
Rebellion” tomark the start of these revolutionary events, identifying the places
where it happened.
- In the Philippines, the Cry of Rebellion happened in August 1896, northeast of
Manila, wherethey declared rebellion against the Spanish colonial government.
- These events are important markers in the history of colonies that struggled for
theirindependence against their colonizers.
- Prominent Filipino historian Teodoro Agoncillo emphasizes the event when
Bonifacio tore thecedula or tax receipt before the Katipuneros who also did the
- Some writers identified the first military event with the Spaniards as the moment
of the Cry, forwhich, Emilio Aguinaldo commissioned a “Himno de Balintawak” to
inspire the renewedstruggle after the Pact of the Biak-na-Bato failed.
Different Dates and Places of the Cry
Various accounts of the Cry give different dates and places.

1. A guardia civil, Lt. Olegario Diaz identified the Cry to have happened in Balintawak onAugust
25, 1896.
2. Teodoro Kalaw, a Filipino historian, marks the place to be in Kangkong, Balintawak, on the
last week of August 1896.
3. Santiago Alvarez, a Katipunero and son of Mariano Alvarez, leader of the Magdiwangfaction
in Cavite, put the Cry in Bahay Toro in Quezon City on August 24, 1896.
4.Pio Valenzuela, known Katipunero and privy to many events concerning the Katipunanstated
that the Cry happened in Pugad Lawin on August 23, 1896
5. Gregorio Zaide identified the Cry to have happened in Balintawak on August 26, 1896, while
Teodoro Agoncillo put it at Pugad Lawin on August 23, 1986, according by Pio Valenzuela.
6. Milagros Guerrero, Emmanuel Encarnacion, and Ramon Villegas claimed that the event
toom place in Tandang Sora’s barn in Gulod, Barangay Banlat, Quezon City, on Augist 24,
Primary source: Accounts of the Cry

Guillermo Masangkay

Source: Guillermo Masangkay, “Cry of Balintawak"in Gregorio Zaide