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ALKANES

GENERAL FORMULA

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES

STRUCTURAL FORMULA

ALKYL GROUP

IUPAC NOMENCLATURE

ISOMERISM

CHARACTERISTIC
Alkenes are saturated
aliphatic hydrocarbons with
general formula of CnH2n+2 for
open chain molecules.

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HOMOLOGOUS SERIES
No. Molecular
of C Name formula Condensed structural formula
atom

1 Methane CH4 CH4

2 Ethane C2H6 CH3 - CH3

3 propane C3H8 CH3 - CH2 - CH3

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STRUCTURAL FORMULA

Molecular CH4 C2H6 C3H8


formula

H H H H H H
‫׀‬ ‫׀‬ ‫׀‬ ‫׀‬ ‫׀ ׀‬
Structural H–C–H H–C–C–H H–C–C–C–H
formula ‫׀‬ ‫׀‬ ‫׀‬ ‫׀‬ ‫׀ ׀‬
H H H H H H

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ALKYL GROUPS
1. Alkyl group are derived from alkanes and
represented by a general formula
CnH2n+1.
2. Each member of the alkyl group
represents an alkane with one hydrogen
atom less.

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The example of alkyl group:
No. Molecule Structure formula Name
formula
1 CH3 – CH3 – Methyl

2 C2H5 – CH3 – CH2 – Ethyl

3 C3H7 – CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – Prophyl


CH3 – CH – CH3 Isoprophyl
‫׀‬
No. Molecule Structure formula Name
formula
4 C4H9 – CH3 – CH2 – CH2 –CH2 – Buthyl

CH3 – CH2 – CH –CH3 Secondary buthyl


‫׀‬
CH3
‫׀‬
CH3 – CH – CH2 – Isobuthyl

CH3
‫׀‬
CH3 – C – CH3 tertiarybuthyl
‫׀‬

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IUPAC Nomenclature of alkanes
1. The straight chain alkanes with no branches
are given a prefix n which means normal.
example:
CH3 - CH2 - CH2 - CH3
n-butane
CH3 - CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH3
n-pentane
2. Alkanes with branches
• The parent chain is chosen based on the
longest continuous carbon chain bearing
the functional group and named according
to the number of carbon atoms in the
homologous series of the parent chain.
• The carbon atoms in the parent chain are
numbered. Numbering can be done from
either and of the parent chain, but the
correct numbering is the one which has
the initial branch with the lowest numbered
carbon atom.
• The names of the branches are identified.
These are commonly the alkyl groups.
• Identical branches of two, three, four and so on
are collectively named with prefixed adjunctions
di, tri, tetra and so on.
• In the event of two or more different branches,
the branches are started according to the
alphabetical order.
• Finally, the compound is named according to
the sequence bellow:
Position of the branch - name of the branch name of the parent chain.
Example:
CH3
|
CH3 – CH – CH – CH – CH – C – CH3
| | | | |
CH3 C2H5 C3H7 C2H5 CH3
methyl

CH3
|
7CH –6CH–5CH–4CH–3CH–2C–1CH
3 3 ⇨parent chain
| | | | |

CH3 C2H5 C3H7 C2H5 CH3


methyl ethyl prophyl ethyl methyl

Name: 5-ethyl 2,2,6-trimethyl 4-prophylheptane


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ISOMERISM
Isomers are different compounds with the
same molecular formula but different
structural formula.
The number of isomers of increase as the
number of carbon atom.
The isomer in alkanes compounds is
chain isomers.
CHAIN ISOMERS
Chain isomers is isomers that the
different structural formula in its carbon
chains or carbon skeletons.
Example:
CH3–CH2–CH2–CH3 with CH3–CH–CH3
|
CH3
n-butane 2-methylpropane /
isopropane
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THE CHARACTERISTIC OF
ALKANES

Physical Chemical
Properties Properties
Physical Properties of Alkanes
• All alkanes being non-polar hydrocarbons.
• Boiling points and melting points of
alkanes increase with increasing
molecular mass or size.
Name Molecular Melting Boiling State at room
formula point (oC) point (oC) temperature&
presure

Methane – CH4 – C4H10 (-182) – (-162) – gas


buthane (-138) (-0,5)

Pentane – C5H12 – C17H36 (-130) – 22 36 – 292 Liquid


heptadecane

Octadecana 308 – 320


– C18H36 – 28 – 32 solid
nonadecana C19H40

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Chemical Properties of Alkanes
• Alkenes are quite unreactive.
• Combustion.
Alkenes burn in air to form carbon dioxide
and water.
Example:
propane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
C3H8 + 5 O2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O
• Reaction with halogens (substitution
reaction)
A substitution reaction is one in which an
atom or group of atoms replace other
atoms in a molecule.
Example:
Reaction with chlorine
methane + chlorine → chloromethane + hydrogenchloride

CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl

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