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Material engineering

Concrete engineering
Concrete

• is a mixture of portland cement, water,


aggregates, and in some cases, admixtures.
• The cement and water form a paste that
hardens and bonds the aggregates
together.
• Concrete is often looked upon as “man
made rock”.
• Concrete is a versatile construction
material, adaptable to a wide variety of
agricultural ,transportation and residential
uses.
• Concrete has strength, durability, versatility,
and economy.
• It can be cast or molded into virtually any shape
and reproduce any surface texture.
• Demand for concrete with higher strength and better
quality, coupled with larger and faster mixer trucks,
led to the emergence of the ready-mix concrete
industry in the post-World War II period.
• The ready-mix concrete producer has made concrete
an appropriate construction material for many
structural and agricultural applications.
• With proper materials and techniques,
concrete can withstand many acids, silage,
milk, manure, fertilizers, water, fire, and
abrasion.
• Concrete can be finished to produce surfaces
ranging from glass-smooth to coarsely
textured, and it can be colored with pigments
or painted.
• Concrete has substantial strength in
compression, but is weak in tension.
• Most structural uses, such as beams,
slabs,column, and tank lids, involve reinforced
concrete, which depends on concrete's
strength in compression and steel's strength in
tension.
• Since concrete is a structural material, strength is
a desirable property.
• Compressive strengths of concrete generally
range from 20MPa to 50MPa but concrete can be
made to withstand over 100 MPa for special jobs.
• Concrete is brittle material, has small ductility
• Shrinkage and creep properties depend on the water
cement ratio in fresh concrete
• Demand for concrete with higher strength and better
quality, coupled with larger and faster mixer trucks,
led to the emergence of the ready-mix concrete
industry in the post-World War II period.
• The ready-mix concrete producer has made concrete
an appropriate construction material for many
agricultural applications.
Components of Concrete
• Portland Cement
• Aggregate - sand, gravel, crushed rock
• Water
• Admixtures - when necessary
Proportions
Determing the proper mix

To determine the most economical and practical


combination of readily available materials.
To produce a concrete that will meet requirements
under specific conditions of use.
• A properly proportioned concrete mix will
provide:
– Workability of freshly mixed concrete.
– Durability, strength, and uniform appearance of
hardened concrete.
– Economy
Types of Portland cement
Cement Use
type
I1 General purpose cement, when there are no extenuating
conditions
II2 Acids in providing moderate resistance to sulfate attack
III When high-early strength is required
IV3 When a low heat of hydration is desired (in massive
structures)
V4 When high sulfate resistance is required
IA4 A type I cement containing an integral air-entraining agent
IIA4 A type II cement containing an integral air-entraining agent
IIIA4 A type III cement containing an integral air-entraining agent
PORTLAND CEMENT
Physical Properties of Portland Cements
1) Fineness,
2) Soundness
3) Consistency
4) Setting time
5) Compressive strength
6) Heat of hydration
7) Loss of ignition
Water to Cement Ratio
• Should be kept as low as possible
• 5-6 gallons per sack of cement is acceptable
• Influence workability and strength

strength

w./C ratio
Determining Aggregate Size:
• Aggregate size depends on the end use:
– The maximum aggregate size should be no larger than one-
third the thickness of the concrete.
– Aggregate size should also be less than three-fourths the
clear space between reinforcing bars where rebar is used.
CEMENT AGREGATE RATIO
• The lower limit of cement required is specified
as a minimum cement content in bags per
cubic yard or kg/m3
– A bag of cement weighs 94 lbs(50kg). Typical
concrete mixtures include between 5 and 6.5 bags
per cubic yard(200-300 kg/m3) of concrete.
– A minimum amount of cement is required in order
to adequately coat all aggregate particles and
provide proper bonding. Small agregate needs
more cement than large agregate
Blended cement
•Ppc (portland pozzolan cement) mixed
pc with fine pozzolan, has smaller
strength in prior to 28 days, higher
strength after 28 days. Has low heat of
hydration
•Pcc (portland composite cement) mixed
pc with other material like furnace slag,
alumina, expansive subtance, and colored
cement
Lightweight Concrete
• use for precast structure and non
structural component
•The strength is lower than ordinary
concrete
•Use a lightweight agregate, foam, or
expand material like aluminium.

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