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WHAT IS IRRIGATION

 The science of artificial application of water to the


land, in accordance with the crop requirements
throughout the crop period for full fledged
nourishment.

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IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

It is a branch of civil engineering which deals with


the design, operation and management of
irrigation projects such as dams, reservoirs,
barrages, weirs, channels, modules and spillways.

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INTRODUCTION TO IRRIGATION
SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN
o Pakistan is basically an agriculture country,
because half of the population is involved in this
sector.
o Agriculture is the lifeline of Pakistan’s economy,
because it contributes more than 20% to its GDP.
o There are two major reservoirs in Pakistan namely;
Tarbela dam and Mangla dam built under the
provision of Indus Water Treaty.
o Inuds river is the longest river of Pakistan having
length of about 3000 km.
o There are about 16 barrages in Pakistan, among
which 6 barrages are built on Indus River. The
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names are Jinnah, Chashma, Taunsa, Gudu,
Sukkur, Kotri (also called Ghulam Muhammad).
WHY IRRIGATION IS NECESSARY
 The necessity of irrigation can be summarized in the
following four points.

1. Less Rainfall
When total rainfall is less than needed for the crop
then artificial supply is necessary. In such cases,
irrigation work may be constructed to convey water
to the area where there is deficiency of water.

2. Non-Uniform Rainfall
3. Commercial crops with additional water
The rainfall may be sufficient in a particular area to
raise the usual crops, but more water may be needed
for raising commercial and cash crops.
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4. Controlled water supply
SCOPE OF IRRIGATION SCIENCE

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 The scope of irrigation can be divided into two
heads.
1. Engineering aspect
 Storage, diversion or lifting of water

 Conveyance of water to agriculture fields

 Application of water to agriculture works

 Drainage and Relieving water logging

 Development of water power

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SCOPE OF IRRIGATION SCIENCE

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2. Agricultural Aspect
The agricultural aspect deals with the following
main points
 Proper depth of water necessary in a single
application of water for cash crops
 Distribution of water uniformly and periodically

 Capacities of different soils for irrigation water

 Reclamation of waste and alkaline lands

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IRRIGATION PROJECT

There are various types of


irrigation projects such as
construction of reservoir,
channel, barrage, weir, etc.
Sukkur Barrage was built in
1932.
It was a large irrigation
project at that time. There
are seven canals which
offtake from this barrage.
Among seven canals, three
are right bank canals
namely; NW, Rice and Dadu
and four are left bank canals
namely; Nara, Khairpur
East, Rohri and Khairpur 7
West canal. Fig. Sukkur Barrage
PLANNING OF IRRIGATION PROJECT

Planning of irrigation project involves two


stages:

1) Preliminary planning
2) Detailed planning

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1) PRELIMINARY PLANNING

The factors influencing preliminary planning are:


o Type of project
o Location, extend and type of irrigable lands
o Irrigation requirements for profitable crop
production
o Cultivable areas which can be economically
supplied with water
o Efficient drainage system
o Cost of storage, irrigation, power and drainage
benefits
o Feasibility of hydroelectric power development
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2) DETAILED PLANNING

o Accurate data on all aspects of the


proposed irrigation project for the better
design of various components of project
o Merits and demerits of all proposed
feasible plans must be looked into before
arriving at a final plan of the project

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ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION
o Increase in Food Production
o Increase in wealth of country
o Improvement in ground water storage
o Protection from famine
o Cultivation of cash crops
o Elimination of Mixed Cropping
o General Prosperity
o Generation of Hydro-electric power
o Domestic and industrial Water Supply
o Facilities of Communications
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o Inland Navigation
o Afforestation
DISADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION

o Waterlogging and Salinization


o Breeding places for mosquitoes
o Water pollution
o Damp climate

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