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Reading:

An Introduction
Reading
• Reading is the process of
interpreting printed symbols.
• It begins with perception to
comprehension.
• It involves analyzing, synthesizing,
and connecting information.
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Benefits of Reading
• Mental
• Psychological
• Social
Levels of Reading
Levels of Reading
• Literal
• Inferential
• Critical
A. Literal
• Based on text
• Reading the
lines
• Literal
interpretation
Try this.
• Drinking water helps prevent having
bad breath.
• What must be drunk to prevent bad
breath?
• What can be prevented by drinking
water?
Try this.
• Studies show that eating a healthy
breakfast everyday can help you lose
weight and keep it off.
• Which part of daily meal must be taken
to lose weight?
• What kind of breakfast must be eaten?
B. Inferential
• Reading between the lines
• Combining information in text and
stock knowledge
• Guessing with basis
Let’s try.
• The man who allegedly murdered his
ex wife may be being cuddled by his
family.
• Is the man in prison?
• Is the man’s family liable in case the
allegation is true?
Let’s try.
• A Virginia man shot his wife and
their two young children to death
on Father's Day and then killed
himself, police said.
• Was the killer guilty?
• Why is this news story sensational?
C. Critical
• Involves judging writer, purpose of
text, nature of text, etc.
Let’s try.
• A terrifying “sniff and die” bug that
kills 89,000 people around the world
each year can travel from the nose to
the brain and spinal cord in just 24
hours, scientists have learned.
• Can this information be true?
• What is the intention of the writer?
Let’s try.
• Wattpad is a writing community in which
users are able to post articles, stories, and
poems about anything online.
• From which site is this definition?
• What is the aim of the writer?
Reading Strategies and
Techniques
Assignment:
Read about the following topic for
discussion next meeting.

Three general reading strategies or


techniques
Strategies or Techniques
1. Previewing
2. Skimming
3. Scanning
1. Previewing
• Getting the idea of a text without
actually reading its main body
Examples of Previewing
• Looking at titles and names of
author/s
• Reading the abstract (for researches)
• Reading headings and subheadings,
chapter summaries, or highlighted
text parts
2. Skimming
• It is used to quickly identify main ideas,
gist, or general content of a material.
• Going through the body of the text
• This is three to four times faster than
normal reading.
• This implies that reading must be done
in large chunks at a time.
Examples of Skimming
• Reading only the lead or first
paragraph of an article
• Gliding your eyes through the text
very quickly (but not reading each of
its words)
• Knowing the pages
Examples of Skimming
• Looking at graphics and captions
• Browsing through magazine and
interesting article pages
3. Scanning
• It is used to discover required or
specific information to complete a
given task.
• This is a search for something
specific.
Examples of Scanning
• Finding the meaning of a word in a
dictionary
• Looking for a phone number in
directory
• Looking for steps, italicized words
• Looking if topics you need are
available in books/references you
have
• Finding dates, events, etc.
Previewing, Skimming, or Scanning
1. Stating the summary of the book
“The Diary of a Wimpy Kid”.
Answer
Skimming
Previewing, Skimming, or Scanning
2. Define the term “whimsical” using
the Oxford English Dictionary.
Answer
Scanning
Previewing, Skimming, or Scanning
3. Check the menu and tell the types
or groups of food served in Zarf
Pizzeria.
Answer
Previewing
Previewing, Skimming, or Scanning
4. Read the chapter summary and
tell what chapter 2 is about.
Answer
Skimming
Previewing, Skimming, or Scanning
5. Identify the title of the work of
Pearl S. Buck that gave her a Pulitzer
Prize.
Answer
Scanning
Making Connections
through Reading
Making Connections Through Reading
• Reading is the process of
interpreting printed symbols.
• It begins with perception to
comprehension.
• It involves analyzing, synthesizing,
and connecting information.
Making Connections Through Reading
• Information gained through reading
may be connected to a reader’s
schema (background knowledge).
• Using the schema, a reader may
connect a text to other sources of
information to better understand
and to apply its contents.
Making Connections Through Reading
1. Text-to-Text
- Present text is related to another
text previously read.
Making Connections Through Reading
2. Text-to-Self
- Present text is related to own life,
ideas, and/ or previous experiences.
Making Connections Through Reading
3. Text-to-World
- Present text is related to past or
current events or figures in the world.
Text, Self, or World
1. Reading the novel titled “Diary of
Anne Frank” and then find its
connection to the Nazi-initiated
Holocaust
Answer
Text-to-World
Text, Self, or World
2. Reading the “Da Vinci Code” then
realizing the events discussed in it
are similar to those found in the
Holy Bible
Answer
Text-to-Text
Text, Self, or World
3. Using a lecture about first-aid care
in responding to an accident that
led to the spraining of your foot
Answer
Text-to-Self
Text, Self, or World
4. Answering an advanced calculus
assignment using a basic calculus
lecture as reference
Answer
Text-to-Text
Text, Self, or World
5. Reviewing for a quiz on the
Spanish colonial period in
literature and encountering
familiar names in history
Answer
Text-to-World
Text, Self, or World
6. Looking for birthday surprise ideas
online and telling whether they are
doable at your own home
Answer
Text-to-Self
Building Vocabulary
Context Clues
• Clues are words or phrases that serve as
hint, so reader can understand the
meaning of highfalutin or unknown
word/s in sentences.
Context Clues
• Hints may be derived from
• examples given
The air in Manila is found to have
noxious materials such as air fresheners,
insect repellants, smoke from vehicles,
and dust particles.
Meaning: harmful
Context Clues
• Hints may be derived from
• the situation or how the word is used in
the sentence
When her son was imprisoned, she felt that
all her dreams for him vanished. She can no
longer look at her son lingering behind the
cold bars of the prison together with other
criminals.
Meaning: staying
Context Clues
• Hints may be derived from
• comparison/s made (similarities)
The taciturn student is like a mute
television.
Meaning: timid/ quiet
Context Clues
• Hints may be derived from
• contrasting ideas (differences) / antonyms
Mike’s daughter is very mischievous;
however, his son always behaves well.
Meaning: playful
Context Clues
• Hints may be derived from
• synonym/s presented
The work assigned to me was cumbersome
and tiring.
Meaning: difficult or tiring to do
Context Clues
• Hints may be derived from
• definition/s provided
A philatelist is someone who collects
different kinds of stamps.
Meaning: stamp collector
Context Clues
• Hints may be derived from
• explanation/s provided
Conjugation is done by adding –s or –es or
–d or –ed to the base form of the verb.
Meaning: changing forms of verbs
Let’s try.
1. Murderers are
usually incarcerated for longer periods
of time than robbers.
• Answer:
• Imprisoned
Let’s try.
2. Those who enjoy belonging to clubs,
going to parties, and inviting friends
often to their homes for dinner are
gregarious.
• Answer:
• Outgoing/ Extrovert
Let’s try.
3. Ben is fearless, but his brother
is timorous.
• Answer:
• Fearful
Let’s try.
4. Unlike his sister Cattie, who had a
very calm and mellow disposition,
John jumped on sofas and ran
through the house like an animal.
• Answer:
• Character
Let’s try.
5. After weeks of avoiding him, Annie
finally found the courage to tell David
that she wasn’t interested in him,
and even though David was heart
broken, he appreciated her candor.
• Answer:
• Frankness/ straight-forwardness
Let’s try.
6. I wanted to just set the table and
be done with it, but my mother
scrupulously arranged each napkin,
dish, and utensil until they were in
perfect alignment.
• Answer:
• Meticulously/ carefully
Let’s try.
7. When Jose found out that his little
brother Emilio carelessly broke Jose’s
Xbox disc tray, Jose was vexed and
sure let Emilio know it.
• Answer:
• Annoyed
Let’s try.
8. Stanley tried to determine the
meaning of the vocabulary word, but
there were so few clues in the sentence
all he could do was to hopelessly
conjecture as to what the word might
mean.
• Answer:
• Guess
Activity-Context Clues

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