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• 1. RESEARCH DESIGN (2 Paragraphs):
–Is it a descriptive,
phenomenological, case,
ethnographic research? Define it.
–Why did you decide to use this
particlar research design?
–Where and When will the study
take place (Semester, School Year)?
–How long will the study take place
(in months)
Qualitative Research Design:
Case Study
• Studies a person, place, or event in a defined
time frame (Leedy & Omrod, 2001)
• Structure: the Problem, The context, The
Issues, and Lessons Learned
• Sources of Information: direct or participant
observation, interview, archival records,
physical artifacts, audiovisual records
Qualitative Research Design:
Case Study
• The researcher spends time in the natural
setting of people studied
• Includes lessons learned and patterns found
that connect with theories
• May be of an individual or group of persons
• Used in order to gain deeper insight on a
phenomenon, validate earlier findings, and
gather more deep-seated data
Qualitative Research Design:
Case Study
• Examples: Drug-rehabilitated teenagers,
transgender, gay marriage, success stories
Qualitative Research Design:
Ethnographic Research
• Interactive, requires extensive time in the
participant’s natural setting to observe,
interview, and record processes (MacMillan,
• Studies people that share a common culture
(Leedy and Omrod, 2001)
• Studies an intact cultural group in a natural
setting over a prolonged period by collecting
observational data (Creswell, 2003).
Qualitative Research Design:
Ethnographic Research
• Researchers use a video camera or
audio/voice recorder if interviews are lengthy
• Aspects: Justification of the study, description
of the group and method of the study,
evidence to support claims, and findings to
the research questions
• Provide evidence of the group’s shared culture
that developed over time
Qualitative Research Design:
Phenomenological Research
• Search for the underlying meaning of the
research participant’s experience (Creswell
• Purpose of the study is to understand an
experience from the research participant’s
point-of-view (Leedy & Omrod, 2001)
• Focus is on the research participant
Qualitative Research Design:
Phenomenological Research
• After obtaining data from observations,
videos, lengthy interviews, etc, the critical
question is asked:
• What does the experience mean to the
research participant himself?
• How will he/she describe the lived experience
of being at the center of the research process?
• What are his/her significant
• Examples: Comfort Women of World War
II, rehabilitated drug dependents,
rescued trafficked women, college
graduates who opt to do outreach in a
community instead of practicing their
Qualitative Research Design:
Phenomenological Research
• Procedural research format:
• Writing the research questions that explore the
• Conduct interviews
• Analyze data to find cluster of meanings
• Writing a report to understand more clearly the
essential structure of the experience
• Data collected should lead to themes of people’s
perceptions of their experiences
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
• The goal of qualitative descriptive studies is a
comprehensive summarization, in everyday
terms, of specific events experienced by
individuals or groups of individuals.
• To some researchers, this design does not
exist, forcing other researchers to feel they
have to defend their research approach by
giving it ‘epistemological credibility.’
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
• There are a number of researchers who
believe and support the fact that ‘qualitative
descriptive’ is a viable and acceptable label for
a qualitative research design.
• While phenomenology, grounded theory, and
ethnography also are descriptive qualitative
approaches, by nature, they are not
exclusively in the descriptive domain because
they also tend to explain phenomena.
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
(Lambert, C., & Lambert E., 2012)
• According to Sandelowski (n.d.), qualitative
descriptive research: should be seen as:
• a categorical, as opposed to a non-categorical,
alternative for inquiry;
• is less interpretive than an ‘interpretive
description’ approach because it does not require
the researcher to move as far from or into the
data; and,
• does not require a conceptual or highly abstract
rendering of the data, compared to other
qualitative designs.
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
• Qualitative descriptive studies are the least
“theoretical” of all of the qualitative
approaches to research.
• In addition, qualitative descriptive studies are
the least encumbered studies, compared to
other qualitative approaches, by a pre-existing
theoretical or philosophical commitment.
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
• Qualitative descriptive studies tend to draw
from naturalistic inquiry, which purports a
commitment to studying something in its
natural state to the extent that is possible
within the context of the research arena.
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
• Regarding the use of sampling in a qualitative
descriptive design, virtually any purposeful
sampling technique may be used.
• The goal is to obtain cases deemed rich in
information for the purpose of saturating the
• Of basic importance is for researchers to be
able to defend their sampling strategies to
meet the purposes of their studies.
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
• Data collection of qualitative descriptive
studies focuses on discovering the nature of
the specific events under study.
• Involves minimal to moderate, structured,
open-ended, individual or focus group
• Data collection also may include observations,
and examination of records, reports,
photographs, and documents.
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
• The presentation of data from a qualitative
descriptive study involves a straight forward
descriptive summary of the informational
contents of the data that is organized in a
logical manner.
• How the data are organized depends upon the
researcher and how the data were rendered.
Qualitative Research Design:
Descriptive Research
• data presentation can be arranged by:
• time of occurrence;
• categories/subcategories;
• actual or reverse chronological order of events;
• most prevalent to least prevalent themes;
• moving from a broad context of an event to a
more narrow context (i.e. specific cases); or,
describing an event from the perspective of more
than one participant.
• Sampling means the size/number of Research
Participants in your study
• Qualitative Sampling enables us to get a
representative sample, a small collection of
units or cases from a much larger population
so that the researcher can study the group
meticulously and make generalizations about
larger groups (Neuman, 2017)
• Wise decisions on sampling can contribute to
the study’s soundness.
• Classified into two:
• Probability and Non-Probability Sampling
Non-Probability Sampling
• Convenience Sampling: choosing respondents
at the convenience of the researcher: Where
you can have easy access
• Samples: Snowballing or friendship
Non-Probability Sampling
• Quota Sampling: Population has been divided
into classes or categories
• Probability of being selected is known by the
• Members of the population selected are not
disqualified from being included in the results
• Example: Surveying in order to obtain a
desired number of participants from various
Probability Sampling
• Simple Random Sampling: Draw a list of all
members of the population
• From the list, a sample is drawn to give equal
chance of being drawn
• Computerized sampling programs or random
number tables may be used to avoid bias
Probability Sampling
• Stratified Random Sampling:
• Categorizing members of the population into
mutually exclusive and collective exhaustive
• Example: Categorizing by Average Yearly
Income of Street Vendors: The researcher may
stratify them by barangays
Probability Sampling
• Cluster Sampling:
• Groups are defined in order to maintain
heterogeneity of the population
• Clusters are representative samples of the
population as a whole
• After the clusters are established, a simple
random sample of clusters is drawn and members
of the chosen clusters are sampled
• Example: Measuring the age distribution of
persons in a locality
Probability Sampling
• The researcher uses the nth member after
randomly selecting the first through nth
element as starting point
• More used for quantitative researches
Other forms of Sampling
• Criterion Sampling: selection based on specific
• Homogenous Sampling: Selection of participants
with the same experiences
• Maximum Variation Sampling: the objective is to
obtain more in-depth views. Otherwise known as
Total Enumeration
• Deviant Case Sampling: Seeking cases that differ
from the dominant pattern