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Data flow diagram

•A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the


"flow" of data through an information system, modeling its
process aspects. Often they are a preliminary step used to create
an overview of the system which can later be elaborated. DFDs
can also be used for the visualization of data processing
(structured design).

•A DFD shows what kinds of information will be input to and


output from the system, where the data will come from and go to,
and where the data will be stored. It does not show information
about the timing of processes, or information about whether
processes will operate in sequence or in parallel
• Symbols Used in Data Flow Diagram: -
• Data process
• A data process transforms data values. Here flow of
data is transformed. E.g. Verify credits, updates
inventory file.

• You can make a distinction between the following


types of processes:
• External Entity
• A source or destination of data which is
external to the system. E.g supplier,
customer etc.
• Data store
• A data store stores data passively for later
access. A data store responds to requests to
store and access data. It does not generate any
operations. A data store allows values to be
accessed in an order different from the order in
which they were generated.
• Input flows indicate information or operations
that modify the stored data such as adding or
deleting elements or changing values. Output
flows indicate information retrieved from the
store; this information can be an entire value
or a component of a value.
• Data flow
• A data flow moves data between processes or between
processes and data stores. As such, it represents a data
value at some point within a computation and an
intermediate value within a computation if the flow is
internal to the diagram. This value is not changed.
• The names of input and output flows can indicate their
roles in the computation or the type of the value they
move. Data names are preferably nouns. The name of
a typical piece of data, the data aspect, is written
alongside the arrow.
• Physical and Logical DFDs :--
• The DFDs that show “What is going on” instead
of “How it is going on” is a logical DFD. DFDs
that show how things happen and which are the
actual physical components involved are known
as physical DFDs. Logical DFDs help to get a
clear idea of what the system has to achieve
without getting into details like who is going to
do it? How one is going to do it? Etc. But
physical models are easier to visualize. Hence
analyst begins with physical DFD before
converting it to logical DFD.
• What is a Flow Chart?
• A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic
representation of a process. Each step in the
process is represented by a different symbol
and contains a short description of the
process step. The flow chart symbols are
linked together with arrows showing the
process flow direction.
A flowchart for computing the factorial of N — written N! and equal to 1 × 2 × 3 × ... × N.
• Use of System Flow Chart :
• Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating
the logic of a system to all concerned.
• Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart, problem can be
analysed in more effective way.
• Proper documentation: Program flowcharts serve as a good
program documentation, which is needed for various purposes.
• Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint
during the systems analysis and Program development phase.
• Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process.
• Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of
operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart. It
helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on that part
• CASE Tools :-
CASE refers alternatively to computer-aided
system engineering or computer-aided
software engineering. Objective of CASE
tools is to automate key aspects of the entire
system-development process, from
beginning to end. CASE tools are essential
for system analysis and it improve quality
of the final result.
• CASE Components :-
CASE tools generally include five Components:-

1. Diagramming Tools
2. Information Repository
3. Interface Generators
4. Code Generators
5. Management Tools
• 1. Diagramming Tools: - Diagramming
tools support analysis and documentation
of application requirements. They include
the capabilities to produce data flow
diagrams, data structure diagrams, and
program structure charts.
• They support the capability to draw
diagrams and charts, and to store the
details internally. When changes must be
made, the nature, of the change is described
to the system, which can then redraw the
entire diagram automatically.
2 Centralized information Repository: -
The capture, analysis, processing, and
distribution of all systems information is
aided by a centralized information
repository or data dictionary. The dictionary
contains the details of system components,
such as data items, data flows, and
processes.
3 Interface Generators :- System interfaces
are the means by which users interact with
an application, both to enter information
and data or to receive information.
Interface generators provide the capability
to prepare demonstration of user
interfaces. Like creation of system menus,
presentations screens and report layouts.
4.Code Generators :- Code generators
automate the preparation of computer
software. They incorporate methods that
allow the conversion of system
specifications into executable source code.
• The best generators will produce
approximately 75 percent of the source
code for an application. The rest must be
written by hand.
• 5. Management Tools: -
CASE systems also help project managers
in maintaining efficiency and effectiveness
throughout application development process.
This CASE component assists development
managers in the scheduling of analysis and
design activities and the allocation of
resources to different project activities.
• Benefits of CASE :--

The benefits of CASE technology include


• Easing revision of applications
• Support of system prototyping
• Code Generation
• Improved ability to meet user requirements
• Support iterative development process.
1. Easing revision of applications :- CASE
tools provide a substantial benefit to
organizations by easing the burden of
application revision. The central repository
facilitates the revision process by providing
a basis for definitions and standards for
data. Internal generation capabilities, if
present, also provide the means to modify
the system by changing specifications
rather than by adjusting the source code.
2 Support of system prototyping :-
Application prototyping generally takes
several forms. Sometimes screen and report
designs are developed to show the
organization and layout of data, headings,
and messages.
• Prototyping can produce a working
system. Input and output features are
developed along with procedural code
and data files. Most CASE tools support
the first prototyping form. Only a few
support full prototyping.
3. Code Generation :- The most visible
advantage of this feature is the reduction
of time to prepare an operational
program. However code generation also
ensures a consistent and standard program
structure and reduction of various of
errors, thus improving software quality.
4. Improved ability to meet user requirements :-
Having the requirements correct enhances the
quality of development practices. CASE tools
reduce the development time. Graphic
descriptions and diagrams, as well as prototype
reports and screen layouts, can bring about an
effective interchange of ideas.
5. Supports Iterative Development Process :-
CASE tools support iterative steps well by
eliminating the manual tedium from
diagramming, cataloging, and classification.
As a result, it is anticipated that analysts will
review and revise details more frequently
and consistently.
• Limitations of CASE Tools
The limitations of CASE technology include
• Reliance on Structured methods
• Absence of Standard Levels of Methodology
Support
• Conflicting Use of Diagrams
• Diagrams not used
• Limited Function
• Limited Scope
• Human tasks remain Critical
1. Reliance on Structured methods :-
Many CASE tools are built on a
foundation of structured methodologies
and the traditional system development
life cycle. This single feature may be their
most limiting aspect, since not all
organizations use structured analysis
methods. If the organization or the analyst
does not use the structured analysis method
and is unwilling to consider its use, the
value of CASE will be reduced.
2. Absence of Standard Levels of Methodology
Support:-
No “standard” CASE tool set has emerged. There are two meaning
to the words “ support a methodology”. A tool can
(a) Support the diagrams a methodology uses or
(b) It can support and enforce the methodology, its rule, and its
processes.
Current CASE tools have one or following characteristics: -
• Are methodology independent.
• Allow users to define methodologies, rules, and standards.
• Support one methodology.
• Support the most popular methodologies.
• Methodology independent tools cannot enforce the rules
and standards of a complete methodology. They may
provide the components of a methodology. These tools
improve productivity by performing tedious tasks
and providing documentation, although they cannot
ensure good system results.
• Tools that provide limited methodology support can
rigorously enforce the rules, procedures, and standards
of the methodologies and provide contextual help, as
well as knowledgebase offering expert assistance.
However, the more methodologies a tool supports, the
less comprehensive the assurance and assistance and
assurance offered for each is likely to be.
3. Conflicting Use of Diagrams:- Tools vary
in their use of diagrams. Some are
essentially graphic-only tools, focusing on
diagrams for input and analysis. Care
must be taken when selecting a tool to
support an organization’s existing methods.
4.Diagrams not used:- case products generally use
graphic for modeling and reporting on analysis
and development throughout the system
development process. One claim of automated
tool vendors is that graphic presentations and
documentation improve the communication
among the development team members. However
researchers have found that in some instances,
graphic tools, whether automated or not, may
not be used at all. Some analysts prefer
narrative or structured English to graphics for
some tasks.
5.Limited Function:-Although a tool may
generally support several phases of the systems
development life cycle or fit with several
development methodology, its primary emphasis
may be on one specific phase or method. Some
products with code generation capabilities
emphasize prototyping as the development
method. Many back-end tools emphasize
maintenance and restructuring of code but only
weakly support front-end determination and
specification of requirements.
6.Limited Scope:- Even though many computer-
based tools include the capabilities of checking
incomplete or inconsistent specifications,
virtually no analysis of application requirements
occurs. The scope of development activities
associated with current automated tools is
thus quite limited. Potential solutions to system
problems are not offered or evaluated.
7. Human tasks remain Critical:- CASE technology
provide tools to assist with the modeling, verification,
clerical, data management, and housekeeping functions
necessary to improve development productivity. The
critical activities are not development of graphic charts
that document the current system but rather the human-
interactive tasks: requirement determination and
verification with the user. As the modeling and
error-checking functions of the development process
are automated, the burden of information system
success falls increasingly on the information
requirements specifier.