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 Newton’s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)

Definition:
- A body will continue its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight
line, unless it is acted upon by an external resultant force.
 Newton’s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)

- When there is an external force acting, there is a change of motion:


a) Rest ------> motion
b) Motion --------> Rest
c) Change of speed
d) Change in direction
e) Change in both speed and direction

- The natural tendency of objects to resist changes in their state of


motion is described as INERTIA and inertia depends on mass.
 Case A: The car and the wall

- What will happen to the driver if the car is halted by the collision with
the wall?

 Case B: The truck and the ladder


 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Definition:
- The rate of change of momentum of a
body is directly proportional to the
resulting force acting on it, and the
momentum change occurs in the
direction of the force.

An object requires a force in order


for it to move with constant
velocity? NO
 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

Definition: If a body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts an


equal force but in the opposite direction on body A.
OR
To every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.
 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

**Consider the flying motion of birds. A bird flies by use of its wings.
The wings of a bird push air downwards. Since forces result from
mutual interactions, the air must also be pushing the bird upwards.

** Bird flies at constant height.


FREE BODY DIAGRAM
 To solve problem involving multiple forces, it is best to sketch each
and every force that is acting on the body
 The steps involving are:
1. Sketch the force
2. Isolate the Object of Interest
3. Choose a convenient coordinate system
4. Resolve the forces into component
5. Apply Newton's Second Law to each coordinate direction
EXAMPLE
Moe, Larry and Curly push on a 752-kg boat that
floats next to a dock. They each exert an 80.5-N
force parallel to the dock.
a) What is the magnitude of the boat if all push in
the same direction? Give direction and
magnitude
b) What are the magnitude and direction of the
boat’s acceleration if Larry and Curly push in
the opposite direction to Moe’s push?
EXAMPLE

Jack and Jill lift upward on 1.30-kg pail of water,


with jack exerting a force of F1 of magnitude 7.0
N and Jill exerting force of F2 of magnitude 11 N.
Jill’s force is exerted at an angle of 28° with the
vertical.
a) At what angle θ with respect to the vertical should
Jack exert his force if the pail is to accelerate straight
upward
b) Determine the acceleration of the pail of water given
the weight, W, has a magnitude of 12.8 N
TRY
A 4.60-kg sled is pulled across a smooth ice surface.
The force acting on the sled is of magnitude 6.20
N and points in a direction 35.0° above the
horizontal. If the sled starts at rest, how fast is it
going after being pulled for 1.15 s?
WEIGHT
 Weight, W, of an object on the Earth’s surface is
the gravitational force exerted on it by the Earth
 The formula is:

 The SI unit still as Newton ,N,.


 The kg usually associate with weight is actually
mass, m,
APPARENT WEIGHT
 The feeling of heavier and lighter when riding an
elevator is an apparent weight.
 If the force is greater than our weight, it will feel
heavy.
 If the force is lower than our weight, we will feel
lighter.
 Sum of force:
EXAMPLE
The fire alarm goes off, and a 97-kg fireman slides
3.0 m down a pole to the ground floor. Suppose
the fireman starts from rest, slides with constant
acceleration, and reaches the ground floor in 1.2
s. What was upward force F exerted by the pole
on the fireman?
EXAMPLE
As part of an attempt to combine physics and
biology in the same class, an instructor asks
student to weigh a 5.0-kg salmon by hanging it
from a fish scale attached to the ceiling of an
elevator. What is the apparent weight of the
salmon Wa, if the elevator
a) Is at rest

b) Moves with an upward acceleration of 2.5 m/s2

c) Moves with a downward acceleration of 3.2 m/s2


TRY
A newborn baby’s brain grows rapidly. In fact, it
has been found to increase in mass by about 1.6
mg per minute.
a) How much does the brain’s weight increase in
one day? [0.023 N]
b) How long does it take for the brain’s weight to
increases by 0.15 N? [6.6 days]
NORMAL FORCE
 An object that is at rest on a surface has a total of
zero acceleration.
 This mean that there is an upward force acted on
the object to counter the downward force acted on
the object in the form of weight.
 This force is Normal force.

 It called Normal force is because it is


perpendicular to the surface.
EXAMPLE
A 6.0-kg block of ice is acted on by two force, F1 and
F2, as shown in the diagram. If the magnitude of
the force F1 = 13 N and F2 = 11 N, find
a) The acceleration of the ice

b) The normal exerted on it by the table


TRY
Find the normal force exerted on a 2.9-kg book
resting on a surface inclined at 36° above the
horizontal.
[23 N]
 Friction Force

Definition: Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion of two
surfaces in contact due to the roughness of the surfaces.

- There are two types of frictional forces namely:


a) Static friction
b) Kinetic friction

a) Static friction is the friction between two surfaces before relative


motion occurs.

Normal Force/Reaction R = Weight W


Applied Force F < Static Force Fr
** Object resists to move
Applied Force F > Static Force Fr
** Object starts to move
 Static Friction Force

If Fs = Static friction, R = normal reaction

• Coefficient of static friction,

• Static friction, Fs = µR
EXMPLE
A flatbed truck slowly tilts its bed upward to
dispose of a 95.0-kg crate. For small angles of tilt
the crate stays put, but when the tilt angle
exceeds 23.2°, the crate begins to slide. What is
the coefficient of static friction between the bed of
the truck and the crate?
 Friction Force

b) Kinetic friction is the friction between two surfaces after relative


motion occurs.

If Fk = Static friction, R = normal reaction

• Coefficient of kinetic friction,

• Kinetic friction, Fk = µR
EXAMPLE
Someone at the other end of the table asks you to
pass the salt. Feeling quite dashing, you slide the
50.0-g salt shaker in their direction, giving it an
initial speed of 1.15 m/s
a) If the shaker comes to rest with constant
acceleration in 0.840 m, what is the coefficient
of kinetic friction between the shaker and the
table
b) How much time is required for the shaker to
come to rest if you side it with an initial speed
of 1.32 m/s
HOOKE’S LAW
 It is the law that govern the elastic of spring
 Its formula are:

 Where x is the length the spring strecth or


compress from its original
 k is the force constant
EXAMPLE
An increasingly popular device for improving the
air flow through nasal passages is the nasal strip,
which consists of two flat, polyester springs
enclosed by an adhesive tape covering ,
Measurement shows that a nasal strip can exert
an outward force of 0.22 N on the ne, casing it to
expand by 3.5 mm.
a) Treating the nose as a ideal spring, find its force
constant in Newton per meter
b) How much force would be required to expand
the by 4.0 mm?