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Implicit Differentiation

3.6
Implicit Differentiation
So far, all the equations and functions we looked at were all stated explicitly
in terms of one variable:

y  3x  5 s  16t 2  30t

In this function, y is defined explicitly in terms of x.


1
y If we re-wrote it as xy = 1, y is now defined
implicitly in terms of x.
x

It is easy to find the derivative of an explicit function, but what about:

x  4 y  3y  y  5
3 2
This is not a function,
but it would still be
x2  y 2  1 nice to be able to find
the slope.

d 2 d 2 d
x  y  1 Do the same thing to both sides.
dx dx dx
Note use of chain rule.
dy
2x  2 y 0 dy 2 x
dx 
dx 2 y
dy
2y  2 x dy x
dx 
dx y

2 y  x 2  sin y This can’t be solved for y.

d d 2 d
2y  x  sin y dy 2x
dx dx dx 
dx 2  cos y

dy dy
2  2 x  cos y
dx dx
This technique is called
dy dy implicit differentiation.
2  cos y  2x
dx dx
1 Differentiate both sides w.r.t. x.
dy
 2  cos y   2 x 2 Solve for
dy
.
dx dx 
Find dy/dx if:
y 3  4 y 2  x 5  3x 4

dy dy
3y 2
8y  5 x 4  12 x 3
dx dx

dy
dx

2

3 y  8 y  5 x  12 x
4 3

dy 5 x 4  12 x 3

dx 3 y 2  8 y 
Find dy/dx if:
sin y 2  cos x 2  cos y 2  sin x 2 Chain
Rule

 dy  2 dy 
cos y  2 y   sin x (2 x)   sin y  2 y   cos x 2 (2 x)
2 2

 dx   dx 
dy 2 dy
2 y cos y  2 y sin y
2
 2 x cos x 2  2 x sin x 2
dx dx
dy
dx
 
2 y cos y 2  2 y sin y 2  2 x cos x 2  2 x sin x 2
dy 2 x cos x 2  2 x sin x 2


dx 2 y cos y 2  2 y sin y 2 
dy xcos x 2  sin x 2 

dx ycos y 2  sin y 2 
Find dy/dx if:
3x 2  5xy2  4 y 3  8
Product
Rule! dy 2 dy
6 x  5 y  10 xy  12 y
2
0
dx dx

dy
dx
 
10 xy  12 y 2  6 x  5 y 2

dy  6x  5 y 2

dx 10 xy  12 y 2 
Find the equations of the lines tangent and normal to the
curve x 2  xy  y 2  7 at (1, 2) .

We need the slope. Since we can’t solve for y, we use


dy
implicit differentiation to solve for .
dx
x 2  xy  y 2  7 Note product rule. dy y  2x

 dy  dy dx 2 y  x
2x   x  y  2 y 0
 dx  dx
dy
2x  x  y  2 y
dy
0 2  2  1 22 4
m  
dx dx 2  2   1 4  1 5
dy
 2 y  x  y  2x
dx 
Find the equations of the lines tangent and normal to the
curve x 2  xy  y 2  7 at (1, 2) . Normal line is
perpendicular
to tangent
4
m tangent: normal:
5
4
y  2   x  1
5
y  2    x  1
5 4

4 4 5 5
y2 x y2  x
5 5 4 4

4 14 5 3
y  x y  x
5 5 4 4


Find derivative at (1, 1) Product Rule is
easier than quotient
rule, so let’s cross
y x
2 3
x
multiply!

y x
3 2

dy y3  6x2
y  x  xy  x
2 3 3 3

dx 2 y  3xy2 
dy 2 dy
2 y  3x  3xy
2
 y  3x
3 2
dy (1)3  6(1) 2

dx 2(1)  3(1)(1) 2 
dx dx
dy
 
2 y  3xy  y  6 x
2 3 2

dx dy  5
 5
dx  1
Higher Order Derivatives

d2y
Find 2 if 2 x 3
 3 y 2
7 .
dx
y  2 x  x 2
y
2x  3 y  7
3 2
y 
y2

6 x  6 y y  0
2
y 
2x x2
 2 y
y y Substitute y
6 y y  6 x 2 back into the
2x x 2 x 2 equation.
6 x 2 y   2
y  y y y
6 y
2x x 4
y 
2
y 
x  3
y y y