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Demographic Concepts

and Terms/Elements of
Population
Imran Ahmad Sajid
Presentation at the Department of
Social Work, University of
Peshawar.
Monday 06 December 2010
Demography
• The scientific study of human population
primarily with respect to their size,
structure and development (change)----
UN

• Change in population (growth in


population) occurs through;
– Fertility, Mortality, and Migration
Demographic Concepts and
Terms /Elements of Population
1. Fertility 3. Migration
i. Fecundity i. Immigration
ii. Crude birth rate
ii. Emigration
iii. Total Fertility rate
2. Mortality 4. Population
i. Crude death rate growth
ii. Infant mortality rate i. Positive
iii. Life expectancy population
growth
ii. Negative
population
growth
iii. Zero population
1. Fertility
• Fertility is the actual number of
births in a given population.[1]
• Fertility rate is the annual number
of births per 1,000 women of
childbearing age, usually between
15-44.
• Fecundity is the physiological ability
to have children.[2]
[1] Henry L. Tischler. (1998). Introduction to Sociology. [8th Ed.]. Balmont,
California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. P. 416.
[2] ibid
Crude Birth Rate
• It is the number of annual live births
per 1,000 people in a given population.
[1]
• Live birth is defined by WHO as, any
born human being who demonstrates
independent signs of life, including
breathing, voluntary muscle
movement, or heartbeat.

[1] Henry L. Tischler. (1998). Introduction to Sociology. [8th Ed.]. Balmont,


California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. P. 416.
CBR Formula

[1] Economic Survey of Pakistan 2008-09


2. Mortality
• Mortality is the percentage of deaths
in a population.
• Death is the permanent
disappearance of all evidence of life
at any time after birth has taken
place----UN
Crude Death Rate
• CDR is the annual numbers of deaths
per 1,000 people in a given
population.
• Formula:
Total number of Deaths in a year
x 1,000
Total mid year population

[1] Henry L. Tischler. (1998). Introduction to Sociology. [8th Ed.]. Balmont,


California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. P. 417.
CDR

[1] Economic Survey of Pakistan 2008-09


Infant Mortality Rate
• It is the number of children who die
within the first year of life per 1,000
live births.
• More than 70 infants per thousands
will die in Pakistan before 2011
Life Expectancy
• Life expectancy or Life expectancy at
birth is the average number of years
that a newborn baby can expect to
live.
• Higher IMR Lower the Life Expectancy
and Vice Versa.
• In Pakistan, life expectancy for both
sexes is 65.2 years (65.4/m and
65.7/f).
3. Migration
• Migration is the movement of people from one
geographical area to another.[1]
Immigration
• The process of entering a new population
(country).
Emigration
• The process of leaving a population (country).
Net Migration
• Immigration – Emigration

[1] Henry L. Tischler. (1998). Introduction to Sociology. [8th Ed.]. Balmont,


California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. P. 417.
4. Population Growth
• Population growth is known as
change in any population over time.
[1]

Formula
• Births – Deaths + Net-migration

. Population Growth. (2010). Wikipedia. In the website Wikipedia the Free


Encyclopedia.
Retrieved on December 04, 2010 from
Positive Population Growth
• Positive population growth is a situation in
which the number of newborns and the
number of immigrants is greater than the
number of dying and emigrating people.
Mathematically it can be expressed as
• Positive population growth = b + i > d + e
• Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, USA
Negative Population Growth
• Population growth will be termed as
negative when births plus
immigration is less then deaths plus
emigration.
• Negative population growth = b + i
<d+e
• Japan, Germany, Italy, and Russia
etc.
Zero Population Growth
• Zero population growth is a situation in which the
number of new births and the number of
immigrants in a population is no more than the
number of dying people and the number of
emigrants, so that the population size remains the
same for the period of time.
• Zero population growth = b + i = d + e
• Spain, Belgium, Austria, and Green land
Thank You