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Junior High School Optics

Physics Ex-52

A lens is a piece of
transparent material, such as
glass or plastic, that is used to
focus light and form an image.
Physics Ex-52

LENSES
Whereas mirrors produce images by reflection, lenses produce
images by refraction. Depending upon their “thickness”, lenses
are classified as “thick” or “thin”. In this course, we will only
consider “thin” lenses. In effect, therefore, we disregard the
thickness of the lens assuming it to be a line.

Convex

Concave

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Physics Ex-52

There are two main types of lenses called convex (also known
as converging ) and concave (also known as diverging ).
Convex lenses are thicker in the middle than at the edges while
concave lenses are thicker at the edges than in the middle.

As illustrated below, both convex and concave lenses each have


three variations.

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Physics Ex-52

When representing “thin” lenses in a diagram, it is sometimes more


convenient to simply draw an arrow rather than the actual lens.
Using this method, an arrow is used to represent the lens as
illustrated below.

Convex Lens Concave Lens

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Physics Ex-52

Convex Lens

A convex lens can


focus the light that
enters it and direct
it to one point.

http://www.shokabo.co.jp/sp_e/optical/labo/lens/lens
Physics Ex-52

Concave Lens

Concave lenses make


light rays move away
from each other or
spread out

http://www.shokabo.co.jp/sp_e/optical/labo/lens/lens.ht
Physics Ex-52

Basic Types of
Lenses
Convex

Concave
Physics Ex-52

Type of Image
Real or Virtual

Enlarged or Reduced

Erect or Inverted
Physics Ex-52

Convex lenses are thicker in


the middle and thus
converge light rays.

Concave lenses are thinner


in the middle and thus
diverge light rays.
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Physics Ex-52

Just as with concave mirrors, the characteristics of the image


formed by a converging lens depend upon the location of the object.

There are six "strategic" locations where an object may be placed.


For each location, the image will be formed at a different place and
with different characteristics. We will illustrate the six different
locations and label them as CASE-1 to CASE-6.

Case-1: Object at infinity


Case-2: Object just beyond 2 F’
Case-3: Object at 2F’
Case-4: Object between 2F’ and F’
Case-5: Object at F’
Case-6: Object within focal length (f)

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Physics Ex-52

Rules for Ray Diagrams for Convex Lens


A parallel ray
refracts through the
focal point.
A ray through the
center of the lens
continues straight.
A ray coming
through the focal
point, refracts
parallel to the
principal axis.
Physics Ex-52

Infinity simply means


CASE-1 : Object at “infinity” “far away”.

No image

Object

NOTE
Since the object is at “infinity”,
all rays arrive parallel.

No image formed (All rays pass through F)

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Physics Ex-52

NOTE
In order to establish
CASE-2 : Object just beyond 2F’ an image point, all
we need are two
Note-1
intersecting rays.
Note-2
A ray thatNote-3
comes parallel
AAray
ray that goes through
throughF.the
that goesthrough
is refracted F’
vertex goes right
is refracted through.
parallel.
Object Image

Image is real (formed by refracted rays) This ray is extra


in locating the
Inverted (upside down) image.
Reduced (smaller than object)
Located between F and 2F
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Physics Ex-52

Again:
In order to establish
CASE-3 : Object at 2F’ an image point, all
we need are two
intersecting rays.

Object Image

Image is real (formed by refracted rays)


This ray is extra.
Inverted (upside down)
Same size as object
Located at 2F
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Physics Ex-52

CASE-4 : Object between 2F’ and F’

Object Image

Image is real (formed by refracted rays)


Inverted (upside down)
Magnified (larger than object)
Located beyond 2F
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Physics Ex-52

CASE-5 : Object at F’

No image
Object

No image is formed
(rays refract parallel)

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Physics Ex-52

CASE-6 : Object is within focal length

Image

Object
Image is virtual
(formed by extended rays)
Upright
Magnified
Located on same side as object
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Physics Ex-52

Summary for Convex Lens


When the object is: Then the image is:
Beyond 2F’ Between 2F
At 2F’ and F
Between 2F’ At 2F
and F’ Beyond 2F
At F’ No image
Between F’ and Virtual image
lens
Physics Ex-52

Examples of CONVEX lenses


1. Magnifying glass

2. Cameras

3. Telescopes

4. Our Eyes

5. Glasses
Physics Ex-52

Images Formed by Lens


Object Type of image Uses
distance
Inverted, smaller, real
u= Telescope
u > 2f Inverted, smaller, real Camera, eye
u = 2f Inverted, same size, real Photocopier
f < u < 2f Inverted, magnified, real Projector
u=f upright, magnified, real Spotlight
u<f upright, magnified, virtual Magnifying
glass
Physics Ex-52
Physics Ex-52
Rules for Ray Diagrams for Concave Lens
Concave Lenses
Ray 1 approaches the lens parallel to the principal axis,
and leaves the lens along a line that extends back
through the focal point.

Ray 2 approaches the lens as if it is going to pass


through the focal point on the opposite side, and leaves
the lens parallel to the principal axis.
Physics Ex-52

One case only!

Object

Image

Image is always virtual


(formed by a direct ray and an extended ray)
Always upright
Always reduced
Always located on same side as object Click
Physics Ex-52

Concave Lens
Object

Image
Physics Ex-52

Summary for Concave Lens

Always:

Virtual, reduced, upright


image
Physics Ex-52

LENSES AND VISION


NEARSIGHTED- FARSIGHTED- Difficulty
Difficulty in seeing is seeing objects up
objects far away close

Concave Lens
Convex Lens
Physics Ex-52

Sign Convention
do + object distance

di + real image, other side of lens


di - virtual image, same side as object
Be sure to
hi + erect image follow the
following
hi - inverted image sign
convention
when
f + converging lens (convex) solving
problems
f - diverging lens (concave) concerning
lenses.
Physics Ex-52

Lens Equation

1=1+1
f d o di

The expression 1/f is called the power of a lens. It is measured in


Diopters, where 1 D = 1 m-1.
Physics Ex-52

Magnification

M = hi = -di
ho do

Note: When magnification is <0, the


image is inverted.