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• Human disabilities started 200 years ago

What is Special Education?

Individually Planned

Carefully Evaluated Achieve Personal

Instruction Self Sufficiency &
Individually Planned Instruction

US, (IDEA) Individuals with Disabilities Education Basic Requirements of IDEA for all IEP's
• US, (IDEA) Individuals with Disabilities
Act requires (IEP) Individual Educational Programs • Basic Requirements of
Education Act- requires (IEP) Individual
for every Special Students IDEA for all IEP's​
Educational Programs​
- 3- 21 yrs old

•- for every Special Students​

•- 3- 21 yrs old​
• US, (IDEA) Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act requires
(IEP) Individual Educational
• - for every Special Students
• - 3- 21 yrs old

• Basic Requirements of IDEA for all

Basic Requirements of IDEA for all IEP's
1. The child 's present level of performance, academic achievement,
social adaption, prevocational and vocational skills, psychomotor
skils, and self-help skills
2. Annual goals describing the educational performance to be
achieved by the end of each school year
3. Short-term instructional objectives presented in measurable,
intermediate steps between the present level of
educationalperformance and the annual goals
4. Specific educational services
5. Needed transition services from age 16 or earlier before the
students leaves the school setting
Systematically Implemented & Evaluated
• Requires educational services
• Curriculum goals
• Competencies & Skills
• Educational Approaches
• Strategies & Procedures -evaluation of learning & skills
Personal Self- Sufficiency
• Important Goal
• Help the Child become Independent from assistance of adults in:
• Personal maintenance & Development
• Homemaking
• Community life
• Vocational & leisure activities
• Travel
Present Environment
• Current Conditions in the life of the child with a disability
• Present Environment
• Family
• School
• The Community (lives)
Future Environment
• Forecast how the child with a disability can move on to the next level
of education (Elem – Secondary – College or Vocational – Work Place)
• Special Education – Helps Children in the Transition: Student to Wage
Who are Exceptional Children or Children &
Youth with Special Needs?
Exceptional Children & Youth
• Mental retardation
• Giftedness & Talented
• Learning Disabilities
• Emotional & behavioral disorders
• Communication Disorders
• Deafness
• Blindness & low vision
• Physical Disabled
• Health Impairements
• Severe Disabilties
Exceptional children- Children with Special
• Average
• Below
• Above Average
4 Points of view about SpecialEducation
1. Special Education is a legislatively governed enterprise
2. Special Education is a part of the country's educational system
3. Special Education is teaching children with special needs in
the least restrictive environment
4. Special Education is purposeful intervention
1. Special Education is a legislatively governed
• 1987 Philippine Constitution
• Article IV Section 1 & Section 5
• Article XIII, Section 11

 The state shall protect & promote the rights of all citizens to quality
education at all levels
 The state shall provide adult citizens, the disabled and out-of-school
youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency & other skills
 The State shall adopt an integrated & comprehensive approach to
health & other social services
RA 7277 – Magna Carta for Disabled Persons
Self Development
Self Reliance

Philippine Policies & Guidelines for Special Education

(Every child w/ Special Needs) Right to an Educational program that is
suitable to his/her needs
2 Special Education is a part of the country's
educational system
Part of Department of Education's Basic Education Program
1907 (beginning)
Has major Basic Education
 Elementary Education
 Secondaty Education
Special Ed programs for:

Graduate Degrees:
3 Special Education is teaching children with
special needs in the least restrictive environment
Teaching (Final analysis)
Special Ed defined in terms of:
The Exceptional Children or the Children & Youth w/ Special Education
needs (Important)
School administrators
Special Ed Teachers
Regular Teachers
Interdisciplinary teams of Professionals: (Guidance Counselor, School
Psychologist, Speech Therapists & etc)
Every exceptional child needs access to a differentiated & modified curricular program to
enabled him/her to learn the skills & competencies in the basic education curriculum

Children with mental retardation are taught adaptive skills & basic academic content that
are suitable to their mental ability
Gifted children – with enrichment activities & advanced content Knowledge (learn more
what the basic ed curriculum offers)

Educational Placement
Special Schools
Residential School
Self-contained Classes
Home bound
Hospital instruction
4 Special Education is Purposeful intervention
• Intervention prevents, eliminates &/or overcomes the obstacles -
individual w/ disabilities from learning, from full & active
participation in school
• Engaging in social & leisure activities
• Preventive Intervention - design to keep potential or minor problems
from becomng a disability
• Primary Prevention – designed to eliminate or counteract reisk factors
so that a disability is not aquired
• Secondary Intervention – aimed at reducing or eliminating the effects
of existing risk factors
• Tertiary Prevention – Intended to minimize the impact of a specific
condition or disability among those with disabilities
• Remedial Intervention – attempts to eliminate the effects of a
The Basic Terms in Special Education:
Developmental Disability, Impairement or
Disability, Handicap & at Risk
Developmental Disability – severe, chronic disability of a child 5 years
of age or older that is:
1. Attributable to mental or physical impairement or Combination
2. Manifested before the person attains age 22
3. Likely to continue indefinitely
4. Result in substaial fuction limitations in 3 or more of the areas of
Major life activities;(self-care, language, learning mobility & etc)
5. Reflects the person's need for a combination & sequence of special
care, treatment or other services that are lifelong
• Impairment or Disabilities – reduced function or loss of a specific part
of the body or organ
• Handicap – A problem a person w/ dissability or impairment
encounters when interacting with people events & the physical
aspects of the environment
• At risk – To children who have greater chances than other children to
develop a disability (Down Syndrome, German Measles)
Categories of Children at risk
Established Risk
• Cerebral Palsy
• Down Syndrome
• & other conditions that started during pregnancy

• Biological Risk
• Born prematurely
• Underweight at birth
• Mother contracted (Diabetes, bacterial infection – meningitis & HIV )

• Environmental Risk
• Extreme poverty
• Child abuse
• Absence of adequate shelter & medical care
• Parental substance abuse
What are the Categories of exceptionalities among
children and youth with Special Needs?
1. Mental Retardation – substantial limitations in present functioning.
Characterized by significantly sub-average intellectual functioning
2. Giftedness & Talent – refers to high performance in intellectual,
creative or artistic areas
• Giftedness- traits above-average general abilities, high level commitment &
3. Specific learning disabilty – Disorder in 1 or more of the basic
psychological processes involved in understanding or in
using language, spoken or written
4. Emotional & Behavioral disorder – a condition exhibiting 1 or more
of the following characteristics over a long period of time & to a
marked degree, Which affects educational performance:
5. Speech & language disorder or Communication disorder