Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

The APA Style Paper

Format and Documentation of a


Research Study

Copyright 2003
The following fictional manuscript illustrates key features of a research paper
reporting the results of an experiment as described by the American
Psychological Association (APA) in the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association (5th ed.).
The APA Publication Manual is not intended to apply in every case to the
undergraduate paper. Students should always follow the particular options or
standards designated by the professor of their specific course.

This material was prepared by Elizabeth F. Henderson, Thomas A. Looney, and Krista N. Gilley.
(Copyright 2003)

We would like to thank Candace Todd and Elizabeth Farnsworth for their comments on an earlier
draft.
We welcome all comments. We are particularly interested in identifying errors and suggestions
regarding how to improve clarity. (Send comments to Elizabeth F. Henderson,
<henderson@lynchburg.edu>)
This PowerPoint presentation is designed to illustrate
the basic elements of the APA style and guide one through the
process of writing a research paper in this style.
First you will see a diagram of the title page, the first
page of your paper. This will be followed by an example of the
title page to an APA style paper of a fictitious experiment.
When you click on the mouse there will be notes about specific
items on each page. Watch for the cartoon mouse that appears
next to the component to which the note applies. When there
is no cartoon mouse, that will be a general note that applies to
the entire paper.

To get a paper copy of the slide presentation with the pop-up notes, print
slides 1 through 20. On the Printer options box, click next to slides in the
“Print range” section and type 1-20. From the “Print what” pull down
menu, select ‘Notes Pages”
The Title Page
•Page Header (5 spaces) Page number (1 inch margin)
•Running Head:
right justified

complete title •Title


•Name These items
are centered &
Use a standard type font •Institution double-spaced!
such as Times New
AllRoman,
pages 12arepoint
numbered
Keep 1” margins on all
size
in sequence
not beginning
use bold font
sides
Do throughout
throughout the
with
forthe title page
emphasis.
paper.
(excludes figure page).
Title Page Example
Schedule-Induced Attack 1

Running Head: SCHEDULE-INDUCED ATTACK IN MOUSE TRAPS

Schedule-Induced Attack in Mouse Traps:

Behavior Modification of Inanimate Objects

Michael Maus

Lunchburg College
The title should indicate
Running the
Head:
variables
This is and
an abbreviated
subjects/participants
title,
The name(s) of the author(s) is/are given, followed by the name
studiedHeader:
(in
flush
this
left
The
sample,
at
first
thethe
2top
orindependent
of
3 words
the page.
from
variable=schedule,
Write
the title,
out the
followed
wordsby
of the institution at which the research was done.
the dependent
5 spaces,
“Runningvariable=attack,
then
Head:”
theas
page
shown.
number,
andThe
theflush
abbreviated
subjects=mouse
right, 1”title
from traps)
isthe
written
edge.
Double space this section.
Double space the title
in all if
capital
more letters.
than one line.
Schedule-Induced Attack 2

Abstract
Although aggression has repeatedly been observed in mousetraps in the
field , the variable controlling the aggression has not previously been
identified. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether
aggression in mouse traps could be induced by an intermittent schedule of
reinforcement. The necessary condition for concluding that attack is
schedule-induced is that more attack occurs during exposure to an
intermittent schedule of reinforcement (e.g. food) than in its absence.

Thistense
The past section and the
is used ones that
throughout follow
most are manuscript
double-spaced.
of paper.
the
The
The abstractabstract has
is a brief, its own page
100-150-word in the
summary of the purpose,
including presentation
No other informationof results.
isand
to be However,
included of the
on thepresent
page. tense
this study.
method,
is used when results,
Also,discussing
do not indent conclusions
theand
results first line of the
presenting abstract.
conclusions.
The intro is not labeled
in the paper
Introduction
Schedule-Induced Attack 3

Complete Schedule Induced Attack in Mouse Traps:


title
Behavior Modification of Inanimate Objects
The introduction begins on the page following the abstract. The
introduction is never labeled. This is where you present the logic and
background research that suggested this study. The general problem area is
mentioned in the first paragraph, followed by a brief review of the relevant
published findings.
There are specific ways to cite previously published works (Miller, 1941).
When there are two or more authors, they are cited this way (Looney & Dove,
Introduction: The topic of study is stated, research relevant
1978). Continue to use double-spacing through-out the paper.
to your study is described, similarities and differences
Thisone
This is When is a
a typical typicalfor
section
citation 2-author
stops
aand in-text
inothers
the middle
single-author citation.
of aaspage,
work.
between your study are noted are
theRemember,
IndentNotice first
theline of
next use “&”
each
section instead
paragraph
starts
the comma after theyou
hypotheses/predictions
of
from “and”
this when
point
immediately.
last name.
have on.
regarding the
Also, (DO NOT
initials thestart
are citation
not used isinparenthetical.
a new
outcome page
yourfor
in-text
of each section!)
citations.
study.
Schedule-Induced Attack 4

However, Wallace and Singer (1976) noted that facillima saepe


non sunt optima accepit hoc. Also in similar studies it was observed
that blah blah blah blah blah (Flory & Everist, 1977; Gentry, 1968;
Killeen, 1979). Similarly, Flory (1969a) pointed out the problem of
“plures viri quam appellabant” (p.384). Consistent with this view
Schaal, Shahan, Kovera and Reilly (1998) note that babble babble
babble pessimi copiis maius deum . For the present study I will look at
the phenomenon mentioned first by Flory (1969b).
When you
Listcite more than
all authors theone article
first time by the same
a work author
is cited in youwithin the same
paper.
When more
publication thanthe
When
year, oneauthors
use work
Use
the isare
cited
direct
lowercase in thesparingly;
mentioned
quotes same parenthetical
asidentify
part of the text,reference,
Thereafter, works with 3 or moreletters
authorsto should bethem
citedinusing
alphabetical
the
always order themindicate
alphabetically
the
write
page
order byby
out the
numberlastasname
“and”.
title. shownof. the first author.
first author with “et al” after it. Example: (Schaal, et al., 1998)
Schedule-Induced Attack 5
Method
Subjects (Participants)

Three household mousetraps purchased from Wal-Mart Super Store in


Lunchburg, West Virginia served as subjects. They were housed together in a 35 x 45 x 10
cm drawer lined with No Bugs M’Lady shelf paper, summer floral design. They were
deprived of any form of cheese, but roaches and silver fish were freely available.

Apparatus

Each of three experimental chambers consisted of a 2 X 3 m room containing no


windows and painted institutional green. Food delivery and target presentation were
accomplished via human hand. Each food presentation consisted of one 2 cm cube of
Kraft's longhorn style Colby cheese. The targets were feral mice obtained from the
Dempsey Dumpsters in back of Gouda Student Center at Lunchburg College.
Use the term “Subjects” when non-human organisms were studied;
The
Apparatus: method sectionand
what provides information critical to the
“Participants” whenequipment
the experiment material(s)
has studiedwere used
humans. inInconducting thethe
either case,
replication
study. ofno
If your study. “Method”
equipment wasare
used, is
ascentered
in most above the section.
subjects or participants studied described, as survey
well asstudies,
the manner in
Each subsection label
this section is left-justified and italicized.
whichmay
theybewere
labeled Materials.
chosen.
Schedule-Induced Attack 6
Procedure

Sessions were conducted in the dark since mouse traps are reportedly more

active at night. Each subject was placed in an experimental chamber with food

presentation occurring on a fixed time (FT) 6-hour schedule following the standard

procedure for this variety of subject. The first food presentation occurred upon

introduction of the subject into the experimental chamber. The target, a feral mouse,

was then introduced into the chamber. Observation and recording of attacks

upon the target were made at the end of each 6-hour interval. At that time, a

new target animal was presented, if necessary. This phase of the experiment lasted

for 10 days. Sessions were terminated after 18 hours during all phases of the

experiment. Procedure: this describes how the study was conducted,


i.e. what the researchers did and what the
participants/subjects were asked to do did.
Schedule-Induced Attack 7

The second phase of the experiment involved removal of the food


schedule. The subject and the target were placed in the experimental chamber,
but no food was presented. Again, observation and recording of attack were done
every 6 hours. The phase of the experiment also lasted for 10 days.

The third phase of the experiment was the reinstatement of the food
schedule. Food was again presented on a FT 6-hour schedule for a period of 10
days.

This page is a continuation of the procedure subsection.


You can see how one might explain how an experiment
or study was conducted. Remember, in an actual paper,
the next section would follow immediately, not begin on
a new page.
Schedule-Induced Attack 8
Results
The data from a representative subject are shown in Table 1.

Insert Table 1 about here

The data are graphed in figure 1. As can be seen from this figure, the
subject immediately exhibited high rates of attack upon the target which
continued throughout the first phase.

Insert figure 1 about here.


When the food schedule was discontinued, the attack rate dropped to a
very low level. When the food schedule was re-presented, the subject
again attacked at high rates.
ThisThe
is results
Ifhow
youyour section
include
page presents
table(s)
will look. the data
or figure(s) for
Actual collected, how theythe were
lines analyzed,
tables and figures are found
clarity, insert where the
and the outcome of the analysis.
at the end of the paper
information is discussed.
Schedule-Induced Attack 9
Discussion
As the results indicate, the behavior of mouse traps does meet the criterion for
schedule-induced attack The rate of attack in the presence of the food schedule clearly
exceeded that during its absence. Food presentation not only induced attack upon mice, but
also upon the experimenter whose fingers are still suffering from the effects of the viscous
bites.

The results of this study suggest that additional work in the field of inanimate
object behavior is warranted. Scott (1971; as cited in Moyer, 1976) discusses the
mechanism of stored energy with relation to aggressive behavior, while Pitts and Malagodi
(1996) point out that blah bla bla.

Thecited
Scott was discussion section
in Moyer’s includes
work. interpretation
You have of your
not seen Scott’s
results
original in relationship
article, to your
so it will NOT hypotheses/predictions
appear in your list of
and to related studies.
The present references. You should note any flaws,
tense is used in this section.
limitations, and alternate conclusions
that have not been ruled out.
Schedule-Induced Attack 10

A similar avenue of research is suggested by recent work with blah

blah bla (Schaal, et al., 1998). The results of this study are consistent with

tristissiumus haec tibi scribo. Fundani nostri filia defuncta, qua puella nihil

umquam festivus, amabilius, nec longiore vita (Calvillo, 1999).

The conclusions of this study are limited by vicibus inhaerebat ut

nos officio quemque studiose intelligenter qua patientia valetudinem tulit.

Medicis obsequebatur, sororem, patrem adhortabatur; ipsamque se

destitutam corpis viribus vigore.


Recall that this citation was seen on
p.4, therefore does not need each
author listed again.
Start references Schedule-Induced Attack 11
on a new page!
References
Calvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of aggression. Retrieved August 21,
2002 from: http://www.csubak.edu/~1vega/dustin2.html
Flory, R.K. (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-food interval. Journal
of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior . 12, 825-828.
Flory, R.K. (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement.
Psychonomic Science, 16, 383-386.
Flory, R.K. & Everist, H.D. (1977). The effect of a response requirement on schedule-
induced aggression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9, 383-386.
Gentry, W.D. (1968). Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental
Analysis of Behavior 11, 813-817.
The first line of each citation is left-justified; subsequent lines
The word “References”
In this are
section,isIfcentered
doyou
nothaveat
writemore
the than
“and”top ofone workpage.
a new
If you cite indented.
morethethan one work from an author,
List citations
between in by
Individual
authors’ ABC same
web
order
names; byauthor
page in “&”.
citation.
author’s
always use the
lastsame
name,year,
Journal names and volume
list them in chronologicalnumbers are italicized;
order (i.e. by page
date)bywith numbers
the
followed bylistinitials
in alphabetical
for first order
and middle title of earliest
names.
first.
the article.
aren’t.
Schedule-Induced Attack 12

Killeen, P. R. (1979). Arousal: Its genesis, modulation, and extinction. In M. Zeiler & P.
Harzen (Eds.), Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior (pp.31-78). New York:
Wiley.

Looney, T.A. & Dove, L.D. (1978). Schedule-induced attack as a function of length of
exposure to a fixed-time 90-sec schedule. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12, 320-
322.

Moyer, K.E. (1976) The psychobiology of aggression. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

Miller, N. E. (1941). The frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychological Review 48, 337-342.

Chapter in is
This a the
bookstandard
with twoformat
editorsfor
different
citing a from
book.the
author of the chapter.
Schedule-Induced Attack 13
Pitts, R.C. & Malagodi, E.F. (1996). Effects of reinforcement amount on attack induced under fixed
interval schedule in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 65, 93-112.
Article number A18506179. Retrieved 11 June, 2001 from Expanded Academic
ASAP/InfoTrac database.
Schaal, D., Shahan, T., Kovera, C., & Reilley, M. (1998). Mechanisms underlying the effects of
unsignaled delayed reinforcement on key pecking of pigeons under variable-interval
schedules. [Electronic Version] Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 69,
103-122.
Wallace, M. & Singer, G. (1976). Schedule-induced behavior: A review of its generality, determinants,
and pharmacological data. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 5, 483-490.

Article titles are written in sentence format. The first word


Online
of journal
the title, article
proper thatand
nouns, is identical
the firsttoletter
the
Everything
after in are
a colon this section
available must
print
capitalized. be
version..
(See cited
above forinexample).
the paper;
Remember, all the authors
Online arearticle
journal listed in citations
retrieved in the
through
Everything cited
reference in subscription
section.the paper
Last namesmust be inwith
precede this
the section;
initials.
Library database rolling URL.
No additional items are to be included.
Schedule-Induced Attack 14

Author Note

This research was supported in part by grants from the Mouse Trap
Research Institute and from the Richard E. Rodent Foundation. I would like to
thank Melissa A. Mousse and Patrick S. Perfect for their assistance in conducting
this study.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Michael
Maus, Department of Psychology, Lunchburg College, 1501 Velveeta Drive,
Lunchburg, West Virginia, 20542. E-mail: maus@lunchburg.edu

The authorany
Identify
Provide note identifies
funding eachfor
sources author’s
your departmental
research. affiliation,
Next, identify
Thiscorrespondence
section should be information in this
double-spaced. paragraph.
Center Give
the words the
provides
colleagues
complete acknowledgements,
whoaddress
mailing provided(writingdisclaimers,
significant & possible
assistance. conflicts
IfYou
there
mayare of
any
“author note” and indent theout state
first line names).
of each paragraph. include
interest,
specialand provides
circumstances contact information
or conflicts
an e-mail address of the
at for interested
interest,
end. note themreaders.
here.
Schedule-Induced Attack 14
Table 1
Attacks by Subject Per Each 6 Hour Time Period
Condition Session Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3
1 1 2 1
2 1 0 2
3 2 2 0
4 1 1 2
5 2 1 1
Cheese
6 1 1 2
7 1 2 1
8 2 1 1
9 1 1 2
10 0 0 0
11 0 1 0
12 0 0 0
13 0 0 0
14 1 0 0
15 0 0 0
No Cheese
16 0 0 0
17 0 0 0
18 0 0 0
19 0 0 0
20 0 0 0
21 2 1 1
22 1 1 1
23 2 2 0
24 1 1 2
25 2 1 1
Cheese
26 1 0 2
27 1 2 1
28 2 1 1
29 1 2 1
30 1 1 2
Schedule-Induced Attack 15

Figure Caption
Figure 1. Average number of attacks across subjects during
periods of food presentation and no food presentation.

Figure
If youcaptions
have more
describe
than one
the figure,
figures
all
youcaptions
include with
are on
your
onepaper.
page.
5
3.9
4
Average # 3 Series1
Cheese

of Attacks 2 Series2
No Cheese

1 0.2
0
1
Condition

Note that there is no header, page number, or title


on the page with the figure.
When your paper is finished,
open the checklist link on the
Instructional Services page as a
Word document. Print it out
and use it to check that all the
elements of your
paper are in the proper format.
Additional Resources
The primary source for this presentation was the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association, (2001) 5th edition. Additional resources
consulted were as follows:
American Psychological association. 2003, January 7) Electronic references.
APAstyle.org. Retrieved January 22, 2003, from www.apastyle.org/
elecref.html

Harnack, A. & Kleppinger, E. (2001) Online! Retrieved August 21, 2002, from
www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/

Rosnow, R.L. & Rosnow, M. (2003) Writing papers in psychology: A student guide
to research reports, essays, proposals ,posters, and brief reports (6th ed.)
Belmont, CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.

For assistance with the process of writing the APA style paper, the authors
recommend Szuchman, L.T. (2002) Writing with style: APA style made easy.
(2nd ed.) Belmont, CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.

Оценить