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Recording Media

Reflection Seismic

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSIING

A set of logical operations on the

input data aimed at reducing the

unwanted components and

gathering the wanted

components.

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSIING

1.Demultiplexing / Format Conversion

2.Trace header generation <…observers’ data

3.Spherical divergence correction

4.Deconvolution before stack

5.Band pass filter

6.Trace normalization

7.Velocity Analysis

8. Normal Move Out Correction

9. CMP Stack

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSIING

10. Residual statics estimation & application

11. Dip Move Out Correction

12. Velocity analysis

13. DMO stack

14. Random noise attenuation

15. Decon after stack

16. Time Variant Filter

17. Migration

18. Scaling

Demultiplexing

in

multiplexed format

Conversion of scan sequential mode to

trace sequential mode.

Essentially a Matrix transposition (rows to

columns and vice versa)

Multiplexing

of data

Demultiplexing of

data

Demultiplexing of data

Trace Headers Generation

Geographical positioning

Facilitates for the unique identification

Sorting with respect to a common group

(common shot, common receiver,

common midpoint & common offset)

Trace Headers Generation

Different Types of Gathers

Spherical Divergence Correction

Seismic Amplitude decays as a function

of time due to spherical spreading and

inelastic attenuation.

Compensation is done using a gain

function that is inverse of the decay curve.

Objective is to see that nearly same

amount of energy is reaching at every

layer of the subsurface.

Amplitude Decay

Normal Moveout (NMO)

(To), source to receiver offset, and Velocity.

Pre-Stack Analysis

In the case of marine data, pre-stack analysis includes selection

of velocity analysis locations, identifying records and traces that

require editing, and determining deconvolution parameters.

In case of land data processing, especially for noisy data,

prestack analysis is also done to analyze frequency content of

the data and to choose parameters for processes that enhance

signal-to noise ratio.

Band-pass filter, velocity filter, and deconvolution tests are run

for this purpose. Band-pass filtering discriminates between

signal and noise on the basis of frequency.

Velocity filters discriminate between signal and noise on the

basis of apparent velocity.

Pre-Stack Analysis

Decon can attenuate undesirable events such as short period multiples and

enhance the vertical resolution, by collapsing wavelets.

Marine data normally have less random and coherent noise than land data,

but they suffer from a higher degree of multiple reflections in many offshore

areas.

A common midpoint sort is generated for conducting many processing steps,

such as applying elevation statics, velocity analysis, residual statics, and

stack to name few.

Figure shows the flow chart of pre-stack analysis.

Distances and angle changes on the seismic line must be taken in

consideration to obtain the correct distance from the source to receiver for

each trace.

Field statics (that account for trace to trace elevations differences) are

usually applied before NMO to derive velocity analysis from seismic data.

Pre-Stack Analysis

Pre-Stack Analysis

Static Corrections

• The elevation differences among the traces of a

CMP gather cause delays.

• The Low Velocity Layer (LVL) near the surface

also introduces delays in the observed travel times.

• The data has to be corrected to a reference surface

(Datum) removing these differences.

• These corrections are static; they don’t change

with time; hence the name ‘Static correction’.

Static Corrections

In order to obtain a seismic section that accurately shows the

subsurface structure, the datum plane at a known elevation above

mean sea level and below the base of the variable-velocity weathered

layer

The value of the total statics (ΔT) depends on the following factors:

1) The perpendicular distance from the source to the datum plane.

2) Surface topography; that is, the perpendicular distance from the

geophone to the datum plane.

3) Velocity variations in the surface layer along the seismic line.

4) Irregularities in thickness of the near-surface layer.

In computing ΔT it is usually assumed that the reflection ray path in the

vicinity of the surface is vertical.

The total correction is:

ΔT = Δts+Δtr

Where Δts = The source correction, in ms & Δtr = The receiver

correction, in ms

Static Corrections

Static Corrections

• Figure shows common shot gathers from a seismic land line,

where statics (due to near-surface formation irregularities)

caused the departure from hyperbolic travel times on the

gathers at the right side of the display.

Deconvolution

• A seismic trace can modeled as the convolution of the input

signature with the reflectivity function of the earth impulse

response, including source signature, recording filter,

surface reflections, and geophone response.

• It is also has primary reflections (reflectivity series),

multiples, and all types of noise.

• If decon were completely successful in compressing the

wavelet components and attenuating multiples it would

leave only the reflectivity of the earth on the seismic trace.

• In so doing, vertical resolution is increased and earth

impulse response or reflectivity is approximately recovered.

Deconvolution

Deconvolution is a process that improves the vertical resolution of

seismic data by compressing the basic wavelet, which also increases

bandwidth of the wavelet.

In addition to compressing or shortening reflection wavelets

deconvolution can also be used to attenuate ghosts, instrument

effects, reverberations and multiple reflections.

The earth is composed of layers of rocks with different lithologies

and physical properties.

In seismic exploration, their densities and the velocities at which the

seismic waves propagate through them define rock layers.

The product of density and velocity is called acoustic impedance.

It is the impedance contrast between layers that causes the reflections

that are recorded along a surface profile

Decon is normally applied before stack (DBS). But it is sometimes is

applied after stack (DAS)

Deconvolution

Mute

This is the process of excluding parts of the traces that contain

only noise or more noise than signal. The two types of mute

used are front-end mute and surgical mute.

Front-End Mute

In modern seismic work, the far geophone groups are quite

distant from the energy source.

On the traces from these receivers, refractions may cross and

interfere with reflection information from shallow reflectors.

However, the nearer traces are not so affected.

When the data are stacked, the far traces are muted (zeroed)

down to a time at which reflections are free of refractions.

The mute schedule is a set of time, trace pairs that define the

end of the muting.

Mute changes the relative contribution of the components of

the stack as a function of record time.

Front-End Mute

In the early part of the record, the long

offset may be muted from the stack

because the first arrivals are disturbed by

refraction arrivals, or because of the

change in their frequency content after

applying normal moveout

The transition where the long offsets

begin to contribute may be either gradual

or abrupt.

However, an abrupt change may

introduce frequencies that will distort the

design of the deconvolution operator.

Surgical Mute

Muting may be over a certain

time interval to keep ground

roll, airwave, or noise patterns

out of the stack.

This is especially applicable if

the noise patterns are in the

same frequency range as the

desired signal.

Convolution to filter out the

noise may also attenuate the

desired signal.

Figure illustrates the surgical

mute approach.

Velocity Analysis

• The word velocity seldom

appears alone in seismic

literature. Instead it will

occur in combinations such

as instantaneous velocity,

interval velocity, average

velocity, RMS velocity,

NMO velocity, stacking

velocity, migration

velocity, apparent velocity,

etc.

• Figure can be used to

illustrate some of these

Velocity Analysis

Instantaneous Velocity

The velocity indicated by V(xa, za) is the velocity that would be

measured at a point a distance xa from the left of the Figure and at a

depth za is an example of instantaneous velocity.

Average velocity

The velocities indicated as V1,V2, V3, etc. are interval velocities.

They are the average velocity through an interval of depth or record time

and equal the thickness of the depth interval divided by vertical time

through the interval.

Average velocity to a particular depth is simply the depth divided by the

time it takes a seismic wave to propagate vertically to that depth.

Since seismic wave propagation times are usually measured as two-way

times, the average velocity to, say, za, in Fig. is (2za/Ta), where Ta is

the two-way time to depth za.

Average velocity is required to convert time to depth.

Velocity Analysis

Root Mean Square or RMS velocity at a particular record time, Tn,

is calculated as follows:

1. Determine what interval times sum to the value Tn

2. Square the corresponding interval velocities

3. Multiply the squared interval velocities by their interval times

4. Sum the products obtained in step 3

5. Divide the sum obtained in step 4 by Tn

6. Take the square root of the value resulting from step 5, This is the

RMS velocity at time Tn

If all reflectors are flat or nearly flat, RMS velocity is the same as

NMO velocity.

corrections are correct, and no other factors are involved, all

primary reflections on CMP gather records occur at the same

time on all traces.

Velocity Analysis

Stacking velocity is the velocity that gives the optimum common midpoint

(CMP) stack output when it is used for NMO corrections.

It may be the same as NMO velocity but if there is significant dip on

reflectors, it probably will not be the same.

Migration velocity is the velocity that optimizes the output of a migration

algorithm, i.e. – moves the reflected energy to the correct times and places.

Apparent velocity is determined by dividing a horizontal distance by the

time a seismic signal appears to propagate across it.

For source-generated noise, apparent velocity and propagation velocity are

equal but for reflections, it is much faster than NMO or stacking velocity.

Apparent velocity is important in designing velocity or F-K filters.

Stacking velocity, migration velocity and average velocity are the most

important to seismic data processing.

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