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Matter

-commonly defined as
anything that occupies
space, has mass and
possess inertia.
It is composed of tiny
particles called atoms.
Two Broad Categories of Matter
1. Pure Substance- matter that has fixed composition
and distinct properties.

a. Element- consist of only one kind atom and cannot


be separated into simpler substance by a chemical
change.
EX. H2,N2, O2, Na, K
Subdivision of elements
I. Metals- have a shiny luster, various color
although most are silvery. They are good conductor of
heat & electricity, malleable & ductile and typically
solid at room temperature except Mercury.
E.g. Cu, Au, Ag
Malleability: property of a substance that allows it to
be beaten into sheets.

Ductility: ability of a substance to be drawn out into a


thin wire.
II. Non Metals- do not have luster, poor
conductors of heat & electricity and can
be solid or liquid at room temperature
E.g. H2, Cl2, O2
III. Metalloids- may have some
properties of metals & nonmetals or they
may have properties that are
intermediate metallic & non metallic
properties.
found at the border
of the heavy zigzag
line of the periodic
table.
E.g. Si, As
B. Compound- substance that is composed of two or
more elements , chemically in definite and constant
proportions.
EX. Diamond, CO2, H2O2

Classification of compounds
I. Acid- came from Latin word acidus which means
sour or tart.
Ex. Citrus acid from citrus fruit , acetic acid acid
contained in vinegar , carbonic acid in carbonated
beverages.
II. Bases- water solution of bases
has a characteristic of bitter taste.
Ex. Soap, potassium hydroxide,
ammonium hydroxide
III. Salts (ionic solids)- are solid
consisting of oppositely charged ions.
Ex. NaCI , NH4CI
Essential Characteristics of Acids and Bases

1. made up of or more elements that are chemically combined


2. can be decomposed into constituent elements by chemical
means
3. Have definite chemical composition
ACID BASE

Arrhenius A substance that A substance that


yields H† ions in yields OH⁻ ions in
aqueous solution aqueous solution

Bronsted-Lowry Proton donor Proton acceptor


Lewis e⁻pair acceptor e⁻pair donor
Classification of Acids & Bases According
to the Number of H & OH Groups
CLASSIFICATION ACID BASE
Monoprotic- HNO3, HCl NaOH, KOH
Monobasic CH3COOH,
Diprotic-Dibasic H2SO4, H2CO3 Ca(OH)2,
Ba(OH)2,
Triprotic-Tribasic H3PO4 Al(OH)3
Amphoteric H2O H2O
Properties of Acids & Bases

ACIDS BASES
Bitter taste
Sour taste Slippery or soapy
Irritating touch
smell pH > 7, pOH < 7
Neutralizes an acid
pH < 7, pOH >
poor conductor of
7 heat & electricity
2. Mixture- Combination of two or more substances in
which each substance retains its own chemical identity
and hence its own property.
Ex. Halo-halo, cement, sugar solution

a. homogeneous- mixture that do not contain visibly


different parts. It is uniform throughout in terms of
composition, properties and appearance.
Ex. Seawater
b. heterogeneous- mixture that has visibly
different parts/components. Do not have the same
composition, properties and appearance.
Ex. Soil, gravel & sand

Physical States of Matter


All matter on earth exist in three physical states: solid,
liquid, & gas. Various properties that distinguish the
three states of matter are shape, volume , average,
density , structure, viscosity and compressibility.
Property Solid liquid Gas
Shapes Constant Variable Variable

Volume Constant Constant Variable

Structure Organized Semi-Organized Random

Viscosity Highest High to low Lowest

Compressibility Incompressible Incompressible Compressible

Particles Closely packed Less closely Widely


packed separated
Changes In Matter
1. Physical change- changes that do not
alter the identity of a substance.
Ex. Crushing, tearing, precipitation,
melting
2. Chemical change- involves disappearance
of starting materials and the formation of new
ones.
Ex. Ripening of fruits, rusting of ions
Types of energy change

a. Exothermic - energy change


characterized by evolution of heat.
b. Endothermic- energy change
characterized by absorption of heat.
S to L – melting: endothermic
L to S- freezing: exothermic
L to G- vaporization: endothermic
G to L- condensation: exothermic
S to G-sublimation: endothermic
G to S- deposition: exothermic
Properties of Matter
1. Physical properties- can be measured
without changing the identity and
composition of the substance
Ex. Odor, color, density, boiling point.
2. Chemical properties- describe the way a
substance my change or react to form other
substance
Ex. flammability
3. Intrinsic/ Intensive –qualities that are characteristics
of any sample of a substance regardless of shape & size
of the sample
Ex. Melting point & boiling point
4. Extrinsic properties- qualities that relate to the
amount of substance and include measurement of mass
and volume.
TOPIC: Methods of Separating
Mixtures

Essential Question: What are


the different ways of
separating mixture?
What are the ways of separating
Mixture?
a.) Filtration
b.) Centrifuge
c.) Decanting
d.) Chromatography
e.) Distillation
f.) Density
Filtration can be
used to separate
an insoluble
substance from a
soluble substance
Ex. Coffee
grounds are
separated by
water through
filtration
Centrifuge
 A centrifuge is a tool
used to separate matter
of different densities.
 The centrifuge spins
rapidly.
 Ex. Separation of solid
matter in blood from the
liquid portion.
Decant

 To decant – pour the


liquids off and leave
the solids behind
Chromatography
 Used to separate
components of a
solution
 Ex. Paper
chromatography
separate black ink
into the colored dyes
it contains
Distillation
 A method of separating
substances that have different
boiling points
 Ex. Separating alcohol from
water
 Boiling pt of alcohol is 70
Celcius
 Boiling pt of water is 100 Celcius
Density
 Ratio of mass and
volume
Evaporation
can be used to
separate a
solute from
the solvent in
a solution
A magnet

 Can be used to separate a


magnetic substance from a
non-magnetic substance