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-commonly defined as
anything that occupies
space, has mass and
possess inertia.
It is composed of tiny
particles called atoms.
Two Broad Categories of Matter
1. Pure Substance- matter that has fixed composition
and distinct properties.

a. Element- consist of only one kind atom and cannot

be separated into simpler substance by a chemical
EX. H2,N2, O2, Na, K
Subdivision of elements
I. Metals- have a shiny luster, various color
although most are silvery. They are good conductor of
heat & electricity, malleable & ductile and typically
solid at room temperature except Mercury.
E.g. Cu, Au, Ag
Malleability: property of a substance that allows it to
be beaten into sheets.

Ductility: ability of a substance to be drawn out into a

thin wire.
II. Non Metals- do not have luster, poor
conductors of heat & electricity and can
be solid or liquid at room temperature
E.g. H2, Cl2, O2
III. Metalloids- may have some
properties of metals & nonmetals or they
may have properties that are
intermediate metallic & non metallic
found at the border
of the heavy zigzag
line of the periodic
E.g. Si, As
B. Compound- substance that is composed of two or
more elements , chemically in definite and constant
EX. Diamond, CO2, H2O2

Classification of compounds
I. Acid- came from Latin word acidus which means
sour or tart.
Ex. Citrus acid from citrus fruit , acetic acid acid
contained in vinegar , carbonic acid in carbonated
II. Bases- water solution of bases
has a characteristic of bitter taste.
Ex. Soap, potassium hydroxide,
ammonium hydroxide
III. Salts (ionic solids)- are solid
consisting of oppositely charged ions.
Ex. NaCI , NH4CI
Essential Characteristics of Acids and Bases

1. made up of or more elements that are chemically combined

2. can be decomposed into constituent elements by chemical
3. Have definite chemical composition

Arrhenius A substance that A substance that

yields H† ions in yields OH⁻ ions in
aqueous solution aqueous solution

Bronsted-Lowry Proton donor Proton acceptor

Lewis e⁻pair acceptor e⁻pair donor
Classification of Acids & Bases According
to the Number of H & OH Groups
Monoprotic- HNO3, HCl NaOH, KOH
Monobasic CH3COOH,
Diprotic-Dibasic H2SO4, H2CO3 Ca(OH)2,
Triprotic-Tribasic H3PO4 Al(OH)3
Amphoteric H2O H2O
Properties of Acids & Bases

Bitter taste
Sour taste Slippery or soapy
Irritating touch
smell pH > 7, pOH < 7
Neutralizes an acid
pH < 7, pOH >
poor conductor of
7 heat & electricity
2. Mixture- Combination of two or more substances in
which each substance retains its own chemical identity
and hence its own property.
Ex. Halo-halo, cement, sugar solution

a. homogeneous- mixture that do not contain visibly

different parts. It is uniform throughout in terms of
composition, properties and appearance.
Ex. Seawater
b. heterogeneous- mixture that has visibly
different parts/components. Do not have the same
composition, properties and appearance.
Ex. Soil, gravel & sand

Physical States of Matter

All matter on earth exist in three physical states: solid,
liquid, & gas. Various properties that distinguish the
three states of matter are shape, volume , average,
density , structure, viscosity and compressibility.
Property Solid liquid Gas
Shapes Constant Variable Variable

Volume Constant Constant Variable

Structure Organized Semi-Organized Random

Viscosity Highest High to low Lowest

Compressibility Incompressible Incompressible Compressible

Particles Closely packed Less closely Widely

packed separated
Changes In Matter
1. Physical change- changes that do not
alter the identity of a substance.
Ex. Crushing, tearing, precipitation,
2. Chemical change- involves disappearance
of starting materials and the formation of new
Ex. Ripening of fruits, rusting of ions
Types of energy change

a. Exothermic - energy change

characterized by evolution of heat.
b. Endothermic- energy change
characterized by absorption of heat.
S to L – melting: endothermic
L to S- freezing: exothermic
L to G- vaporization: endothermic
G to L- condensation: exothermic
S to G-sublimation: endothermic
G to S- deposition: exothermic
Properties of Matter
1. Physical properties- can be measured
without changing the identity and
composition of the substance
Ex. Odor, color, density, boiling point.
2. Chemical properties- describe the way a
substance my change or react to form other
Ex. flammability
3. Intrinsic/ Intensive –qualities that are characteristics
of any sample of a substance regardless of shape & size
of the sample
Ex. Melting point & boiling point
4. Extrinsic properties- qualities that relate to the
amount of substance and include measurement of mass
and volume.
TOPIC: Methods of Separating

Essential Question: What are

the different ways of
separating mixture?
What are the ways of separating
a.) Filtration
b.) Centrifuge
c.) Decanting
d.) Chromatography
e.) Distillation
f.) Density
Filtration can be
used to separate
an insoluble
substance from a
soluble substance
Ex. Coffee
grounds are
separated by
water through
 A centrifuge is a tool
used to separate matter
of different densities.
 The centrifuge spins
 Ex. Separation of solid
matter in blood from the
liquid portion.

 To decant – pour the

liquids off and leave
the solids behind
 Used to separate
components of a
 Ex. Paper
separate black ink
into the colored dyes
it contains
 A method of separating
substances that have different
boiling points
 Ex. Separating alcohol from
 Boiling pt of alcohol is 70
 Boiling pt of water is 100 Celcius
 Ratio of mass and
can be used to
separate a
solute from
the solvent in
a solution
A magnet

 Can be used to separate a

magnetic substance from a
non-magnetic substance