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Defect / Variation

Reduction Roadmap
=
The Six Sigma
Methodology

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Example of a Process with Variation
Example: Identify the process settings required to eliminate the
need to grade bearings
Characterization of Process Y = f (x)
Key Process Input Key Process Output
Variables (X’s) Variables (Y’s)
Surface Finish
Cleanliness
Process
Hardness
Noise Critica
Ovality Level l
Waviness to
Assembly Machine Bearing Custo
Lubrication Performance mer
……………

What causes the Noise & the Variation in the Noise Level ????

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Different Components of Variation
Positional variation (on the same part):
•Variation within a part
•Variation within a batch or set-up
 •Variation within machine position
A •Variation in measurement system
B
 Cyclical variation (repeating pattern):
•Different process settings or adjustments by
operator or shift
•Material differences · Supplier changes
•Tool or machine wear and repair or replacement
•Sorting practices
•Maintenance schedule
1 2
Temporal variation (over time):
C D •Day to Day or Week to Week output from a
  process
•Set-up to Set-up for machines or jigs
•Shift to Shift
•Season to Season (due to temperature or
humidity)
no Taking
lat the total process variation apart into its components is essential to
w er
understanding and prioritizing the elimination of significant sources and
E F
  controlling those that remain.

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


The Six Sigma Methodology

The 5 phases of the Six Sigma Methodology

Opportunity
Identification
Define

Measure ØContinuously
Process repeat and
Characterization improve!
Analyze ØNo complacency
with success!

Improve
Process
A I C
DM
Optimization
Control

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Defect / Variation Reduction Roadmap

Define Measure Analyze Improve Control

A. Identify Project B. Develop C. Define


KPOV’s & KPIV’s Team Charter Process Map

Deliverables: Deliverables: Deliverables:


1) Identify 1) Develop The 1) High Level
Customer(s) Business Case Process Map
2) Identify 2) Develop The Connecting the
Project Key Process Problem and Goal Customer to the
Output Variables Statements Process
(KPOV’s) 3) Determine 2) Summary of
3) Identify the Project Scope Define Phase
Key Process Input 4) Select Team
Variables (KPIV’s) Tools:
& Define Roles
that effect the ■Process Mapping
5) Set Project
KPOV’s. Milestones

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Defect / Variation Reduction Roadmap

Define Measure Analyze Improve Control

1. Select KPOV 2. Define Perfor- 3. Measurement


Characteristics mance Standards System Evaluation

Deliverable: Deliverable: Deliverables:


Identify Determine 1)
Measurable Key Process and Confirm Measurement
Output Variable (KPOV) Specification Limits System Adequate to
that will be Improved for your Y. Measure Y
2) Summary of
Tools: Measure Phase.
■Quality Function
Deployment (QFD) Tools:
■Process Mapping ■Continuous Gage
■Cause & Effect Diagram R&R
■FMEA ■Test / Retest

■Discrete vs. Contin. Data ■Attribute Gage R&R

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Defect / Variation Reduction Roadmap

Define Measure Analyze Improve Control

4. Establish 5. Define Perfor- 6. Identify Variation


Process Capability mance Objectives Sources

Deliverable: Deliverable: Deliverable:


Baseline Statistically List of
Current Process Define the Goal of the Statistically Significant
Project X’s, Chosen Based on
Tools: Analysis of Historical
■Basic statistics Tools: Data
■Graphical Analysis ■Benchmarking
Tools:
■Sampling
■Process Analysis
■Continuous Zst, Zlt
■Graphical Analysis
■Normality
■Hypothesis Testing
■Discrete Zst, Zlt
■Regression Analysis
■ANOVA

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Defect / Variation Reduction Roadmap

Define Measure Analyze Improve Control

7. Screen Potential 8. Discover Variable 9. Establish Operating


Causes Relationships Tolerances

Deliverable: Deliverables: Deliverable:


Determine 1) Establish Transfer Specify
the Vital Few X’s Function Between Y Tolerances on the
That Are Causing and Vital Few X’s. Vital Few X’s.
Changes in Y. 2) Determine Optimal
Setting for the Vital Tools:
Tools: Few X’s. ■Simulation
■Screening Design of 3) Perform Confirmation
Experiments (DOE) Runs.

Tools:
■DOE, Factorial
Designs

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Defect / Variation Reduction Roadmap

Define Measure Analyze Improve Control

10. Define and Validate 11. Determine 12. Implement


Measurem. System Process Capability Process Control

Deliverable: Deliverables: Deliverable:


Measurement System 1) Determine Develop and
is Adequate to Post-Improvement Implement Process
Measure X’s in the Capability and Control Plan
Actual Application Performance
2) Confirm that Tools:
Tools: the Improvement ■FMEA

■See Step 3 Goal has been ■Poka-Yoke



realized ■5-S
■ ■Training / Certification
Tools: ■Stat. Process Control
■See Step 4 ■Std. Work Processes

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Example Process Map
Operator loads 1 lot into 2nd
lapping machine & starts the NV
KPIV’s machine for 1st part of cycle
A
•Dimension of balls
•Hardness of balls
•Cleanliness balls Op. assures proper ball infeed

Machine is lapping balls


NV
•Lot size A

•Type of Bakelite wheel Dat


Op. checks ball diameter
a NV
•Condition of wheel A
•Type of Bakelite plate KPOV’s
Op. sets machine for 2nd part of cycle •Diameter of balls
•Condition of plate NV
A
•Type of coolant •Distribution of
Dat
•Temperature coolant a
Op. checks ball diameter NV diameter
VA A •Ovality of balls
•Dilution of coolant
•Pollution of coolant Dat
Op. checks ball diameter •Waviness of balls
a NV
•Amount of coolant A •Surface of balls
•Type of infeed plate •Cleanliness of balls
Op. measures distribution of ball dia NV
•Condition of infeed plate A
•Type of outfeed plate
•Condition of outfeed plate Op. stops the machine
r
ic e o
NV
A n
•Pressure wheel & plate s
Op. measures ovality & e m ap a ant,
•Rotating speed wheel t h w
waviness and checks surface Make ly as you at the !
•Elapsed time
as ug tant is th s across
NV
Dat & cleanliness of balls A
r
•…………… e
a
impo age com
Op. unloads the machine mess
NV
A

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Correlation and Regression

ÜThese tools are utilized to characterize the process, that is, to understand
the behavior of process outputs (Y) given specific values of inputs (X).
This type of study investigates the process in its natural operating
state (no artificially induced variation, such as with Design of
Experiments).
Ü
ÜCorrelation provides a graphical analysis and mathematical tool with which
we can “quantify” the degree or extent of the relationship between two
variables.
The degree of linear association between two variables is quantified
by the correlation coefficient r.
Ü
ÜRegression can be used as a means of obtaining prediction equations (not
necessarily linear).
These equations can be used to predict the output variable (Y)
based on a certain input variable (X).

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Multivariate Analysis

ÜMulti-Variate is a graphical tool, which through logical


sub-grouping, allows the analysis of input effects on
process outputs.
Data is collected while the process is in its natural state.
The goal of this analysis is to narrow the field of the trivial many
inputs, to only the critical few.

Categories of sub-groups are typically as follows:


Positional: variation within a part
Cyclical: variation between parts
Temporal: variation over time

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Hypothesis Testing

ÜHypothesis testing allows us to answer the practical question: "Is


there a real or significant difference between process #1 and process
#2, or output from scenario #1 and output from scenario #2 such that
the difference is too large to be attributed to chance?”

The following examples illustrate some potential uses of this test:


•Is there a real difference between Machine A and Machine B?
•Is there a relationship between the number of defective parts and
the manufacturing method?
•Does a particular gage create more or less defects using a
specific test method?
•Has the process change obtained the desired change in
performance?
•Based on our sample, is the actual proportion of defective parts
consistent with the supplier's claim of 0.1%?

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


ANOVA - Analysis of Variance

ÜThe basic idea of this procedure is to split the total variability of the
response variable (the variability of all observations) into blocks
that relate to different processes, suppliers, shifts, or input
categories, etc.

ÜThe analysis provides graphical as well as quantitative measures of


whether significant statistical differences exists between process
output for different input variables.

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Design of Experiments (DOE)

ÜIn general, DOE is a controlled, active variation of a process to


identify optimum settings or procedures for improved product
quality.
More specifically, it is a systematic method where a number of
factors (input variables) are changed simultaneously following a
predetermined pattern, in order to investigate main effects as well
as their interactions.

ÜDOE allows for more information to be gained from less trial runs
than traditional “one factor at a time” experimentation methods.

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential


Six Sigma Roadmap, Summary

Phase Step Description Focus Tools Deliverables

Define A Identify Project KPOV’s & KPIV’s Project KPOV’s & KPIV’s
B Develop Team Charter Approved Charter
C Define Process Map Process Mapping High Level Process Map

Measure 1 Select KPOV Characteristics Y Customer, QFD, FMEA, Process Mapping, Cause Project Y
& Effect Diagram, Discrete vs. Continuous Data
2 Define Performance Standards Y Customer, Blueprints Performance Standard for
Project Y
3 Measurement System Analysis Y Continuous Gage R&R, Test/Retest, Attribute R&R Data Collection Plan & MSE,
Data for Project Y

Analyze 4 Establish Process Capability Y Basic statistics, Graphical Analysis, Sampling, Process Capability for Project Y
Continuous Zst / Zlt, Normality, Discrete Zst / Zlt
5 Define Performance Objectives Y Team, Benchmarking Improvement Goal for Project Y
6 Identify Variation Sources X Process Analysis, Graphical Analysis, Hypothesis Prioritized List of all X’s
Tests, Regression Analysis, ANOVA

Improve 7 Screen Potential Causes X DOE-Screening List of Vital Few Xs


8 Discover Variable Relationships X DOE, Factorial Designs Proposed Solution
9 Establish Operating Tolerances Y, X Simulation Piloted Solution

Control 10 Define & Validate Measurement Y, X Continuous Gage R&R, Test/Retest, Attribute R&R MSE
System on X’s in Actual Application
11 Determine Process Capability Y, X Basic statistics, Graphical Analysis, Sampling, Process Capability Y, X
Continuous Zst / Zlt, Normality, Discrete Zst / Zlt
12 Implement Process Control X FMEA, Poka-Yoke, 5-S,Training / Certification, Sustained Solution,
Stat. Process Control, Std. Work Processes Documentation

Copyright NN, Inc. 2004 Company Confidential