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Business Data

Communications and
Networking, 8th ed.

FitzGerald and Dennis

6-1
Computer Networking
INSY-4304

Dr. R. Dash, Ph. D; Ph. D.


MS, MSE, MSCSE
INSY-Department

6-2
Chapter 7

---WLAN---
Wireless Local Area Networks

6-3
Objectives of Chap-7
We will Understand ...
 WLAN = Wireless LAN
 Different Types of WLANs
 Techniques to Improve WLANs
 WLAN-Security
 Recommendation for WLAN Design

6-4
INTRODUCTION

6-5
Introduction
 Networks—Primarily 2-Types:
 Traditional LAN—in today’s environment:
• Aka—Wired Ethernet LANs
 Shared Ethernet LAN
 Gigabit Ethernet LAN
 Switched Ethernet LAN

• Current—and—future LANs
 WLAN = Wireless LAN

6-6
WLAN—Wireless LAN?
 Wireless Networking:
• It is an extension of computer wired-networks.
• It is founded on the RF—radio frequency.
• Provides flexibility and mobility for connecting
to a network.
• Signal transmission takes place over the air.
• Transmission of data over a wireless network—
as compared to wired network—introduces new
security issues.

6-7
WLAN—Wireless LAN?
 WLAN = Wireless LAN:
• Aka—Wi-Fi = Wireless Fidelity
• Transmits data using RF--radio frequency.
• Being used by almost 90% of the companies
• It is a logical extension of PDAs and Cell Phones.
• Are not totally wireless—because they are used
to connect a set of computers in a wired network.

6-8
Usefulness of WLAN
 Enables you to make use of your network
from a different locations—such as:
• Offices, on the road—cars, bikes
• Lunchroom, cafeteria, restaurants
• Corridor, backyard--Patio
• Bathroom—restroom--toilet
• In the playground--courtyard
• In the airports, coffee-shop
• WLAN appears everywhere as hotpots and will be
quite ubiquitous for the 5—to—10 year kids.

6-9
Usefulness of WLAN
 Popular for police—cops
 Used in the hospitals—to access patient’s
records for anything—surgery, etc.
 Used by all kinds of people:
• Good people
• Bad people—criminals, terrorists, etc.

6-10
Benefits of WLAN
 Mobility--boosting productivity and also convenience
 Performance—provides high-speed connection
 Attractive price—cheaper than a wired network
 Application agnostic—can work with all existing
applications—the standard protocol is—TCP/IP.
 Rapid and Flexible Deployment:
• Can quickly extend a wired network with the ease of
attaching a WAP—aka—AP—access point to a high-speed
network connection.

6-11
Types of WLANs
 4-Principal Types of WLANs:
• IEEE—802.11b---well-known—WLAN—Wi-Fi
• IEEE—802.11a---well-known—WLAN—Wi-Fi
• IEEE—802.11g---well-known—WLAN—Wi-Fi
• IEEE—802.15—aka—Bluetooth--WPAN
 WLAN = Wireless Local Area Network
 WPAN = Wireless Personal Area Network

 All the above are WLAN standards


 All are the layer-2 data link layer protocols.
 Just a note to remember---bag---Bluetooth

6-12
IEEE—802.11 Family
 3-Family Members:
• Aka—WLAN—Wi-Fi:
• 802.11b---802.11a---802.11g
• All these protocols are termed—Wi-Fi
• 802.11b and 802.11g share the same
frequency range—2.4 GHz
• 802.11g is more attractive than 802.11a for
users who already have 802.11b installed and
want to upgrade their system.

6-13
Building Wireless Networking
 Wireless Networking is built:
• Refers to radio technology
• Based on RF—radio frequency
• Without wires and without cables
• Lets 2—or--more computers to communicate
• Makes use of the standard network-protocols
such as—IP—Internet Protocol.

6-14
IEEE—802.11—WLAN—Standard
 802.11 W-Standard defines 3-things:
 1. Physical Layer:
• The method of transmitting the data
• Data may be RF—or—infrared
 2. MAC—media access control--Layer:
• The reliability of data service
• Access control to the shared wireless medium
• Protecting the privacy of the transmitted data
 3. Wireless Management Protocols & Services:
• CIA—Confidentiality—Integrity--Authenticity
• Association, data delivery and privacy

6-15
Configuring WLAN
 Each PC is has a LAN adapter card
• PC adapter card—aka—PC-card--is a device that
connects the client to the wireless medium.
 Different styles of PC-cards:
• PCI = Peripheral Component Interconnect
• ISA = Industry Standard Architecture
• PCMCIA = Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association.
 Services provided by the WLAN-adapter:
• Privacy
• Authentication
• Delivery of the data

6-16
Technologies for IEEE-802.11
 Currently--4Physical Layer Technologies
being used in 802.11 wireless networking:
• DSSS, FHSS, Infrared, OFDM
 DSSS = Direct sequence spread spectrum—used
most frequently IEEE-802.11b wireless network.
 FHSS = Frequency hopping spread spectrum
 Infrared—it is a light signal (while microwave is a
radio signal; both are electromagnetic waves).
 OFDM = Orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing—used in IEEE-802.11a wireless network.

6-17
IEEE—802.11b--Standard
 Aka—Wireless Ethernet-LAN
• Uses many Ethernet features
• Designed to connect Ethernet-LANs
 Aka—Wi-Fi—Wirelsss Fidelity
• Evokes memories of HiFi—High Fidelity stereo
music entertainment.

6-18
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 2-Types of 802.11b—WLANs:
 Type-1---FHSS-System:
• Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
• Rapidly hops between frequencies
• Runs at—different speeds—1 Mbps, 2 Mbps.
 Type-2---DSSS-System:
• Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
• Spreads the signal over a wide frequency
• Runs at 4-different speeds:
 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps, 11 Mbps.

6-19
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 Topology---Physical star and logical bus

6-20
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 Needs a Wireless-NIC:
• It is a kind of radio transceiver--Sends and
receives signals up to 100—to—150 m.
 Also finds application in the following:
• in the desktop computers
• In the laptop computer as PCMCIA
• PCMCIA—Personal Computer Memory Card
International Organization—was formed in
1989 that developed a standard for credit card
sized plug-in adapters designed for use in the
portable computers.
6-21
Types of NIC—cards
NIC-Type Connection with Desktop Description
respect to PC or Laptop
PCI Internal Desktop Most common

USB External Both Easiest to install

ISA Internal Desktop Installation is


complicating
PCMCIA External Laptop Needs modem for
NIC connection
PCI = Peripheral Component USB = Universal Serial Bus
Interconnect
ISA—aka—”eye-suh”-- PCMCIA = Personal Computer Memory
Industry Standard Architecture Card International Association
6-22
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 Wireless Access Point—aka—AP:
• Acts as a repeater
• It is a kind of radio-transceiver
• Plays the role of a hub (in a wired Ethernet-LAN)
• Makes connection between Wireless-LAN and wired-
Ethernet-LANs that uses:
 10 Base-T, 100 Base-T
 3-Types of Access Points—aka—AP:
• 802.11b—AP
• 802.11a—AP
• 802.11g—AP

6-23
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 Role of NIC and AP in the WLAN:
• NICs transmit data thru the AP
• NICs in the WLAN transmit the packets to AP
• AP retransmits the packets to its destination node
• Wireless-NICs do not communicate with each other
 Always keep in mind:
• WAP = Wireless Access point
• WAP--aka—AP = Access Point
• AP--aka—WAP = Wireless Access Point

6-24
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 BSS = Basic Service Set:
• Aka—Ad hoc network.
• Used to describe an independent network
• It is the fundamental topology of the WLAN.
• In this case, the wireless clients—nodes—
stations communicate directly with each other.
• Example of BSS—ad hoc—network is
displayed in the next slide.

6-25
802.11—WLAN Operational Modes
 IEEE—802.11 Operate in 2-Modes:
 1. Ad-Hoc Mode:
• Aka--IBSS—Independent-BSS
• It is a peer-to-peer type of networking
 2. Infrastructure Mode:
• Aka—BSS—Basic Service Set
• Uses the WAP—aka—AP—access points to
communicate between the mobile devices and the
wired network.

6-26
2-Modes of Wireless Operation
 1. Ad-Hoc Mode—aka--IBSS:
• Aka—Peer-to-peer wireless networking mode
• The operation in this mode--aka—IBSS.
• IBSS = Independent Basic Service Set
• Does not use any WAP—AP—access point.
• All computers can directly communicate—share
files—printers--with each other; but
• Are unable to access wired-LAN resources
unless one of the computers acts as a bridge or
a gateway to perform the routing service.

6-27
2-Modes of Wireless Operation
 2. Infrastructure Mode—aka--BSS:
• Requires the use of a BSS—Basic Service Set.
• In other words, it needs a WAP—AP—access point.
• The WAP—aka—AP acts as an Ethernet bridge and
forwards the communications to the appropriate
network—either the Wired-LAN or another WLAN.
• WAP--aka—AP--access point is needed to allow
wireless computers to connect not only with each other,
but also to a wired network.
• Most corporate WLANS operate in this mode—because
they require access to the wired-LAN to use services
such as—printer and file servers.

6-28
IBSS—Independent BSS
---Ad-Hoc Mode---

6-29
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 WAP—aka—AP--access point:
• Is a kind of transceiver
• Is a transmitting—and—receiving unit
• Interconnects data from WLAN to the regular wired
network—like, traditional Ethernet-LAN.
• Typically uses RJ-45 jack for making connection
with the wired network.
• When AP—access point—is used it provides
wireless connection between other users in the
WLAN and the wired network.
• See the next slide..

6-30
Adding an AP to the BSS
---Infrastructure Mode---

6-31
Adding an AP to the BSS
---Infrastructure Mode---

6-32
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 WAP—aka—AP--access point:
• Provides bridge--connection between the wired-LAN
and the WLAN—Wireless-LAN.
• Physical connection—between the AP and the wired
network’s switch or hub (typically Ethernet) is
established by making use of some good cable—like,
Cat-6 or Cat-5e).
 Next slide shows:
• PC-A wants to send data to PC-D
• PC-D belongs to the wired-LAN
• PC-A belongs to the WLAN—Wireless-LAN—X
• Communication takes place from PC-A—to—AP
• Then from AP to the—Hub/Switch
• Then from the hub/switch to the PC-D
6-33
Set-up for a Basic-WLAN

6-34
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 AP—Access Points—use 2-Types of Antennas:
• Omni-directional Antenna:
• Aka—rubber-duck
• Frequently uses dipole antennas
• Transmits—simultaneously--in all directions
• Transmits—up and down—vertically—horizontally
• Directional Antenna:
• Transmits only in 1-direction
• Signal is concentrated in a narrower—focused area
• Most often used in the exterior wall of a building
• Essentially—dish antenna—parabolic reflector

6-35
3-Possible Antennas
Antenna Type Radiation Range Range Cost
Pattern --in km-- --km--
2 Mbps 11 Mbps
a Omni Omnidirect 7 2 Mod
ional
b Yagi Directional 12 7.5 Mod

C Dish Highly 38 18 High


directional
Mod--moderate Omni—Yagi—Dish are some
important antennas

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Omnidirectional Antenna
---Point-to-Multipoint Link---

6-37
Yagi-Directional-Antenna
Providing Point-to-Point Link

6-38
Antenna Radiation Pattern
a—Omnidirectional; b—Yagi--directional
c—Dish--highly directional

6-39
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 MAC—Media Access Control—of WLAN:
• CSMA/CA—with 2-Approaches—DCF and PCF
• Nodes—computers listen before they transmit
• If no one else is transmitting, the, they transmit.
 Approach-1---CSMA/CA—DCF:
• Aka---PCSM
• DCF = Distributed Coordination Function
• PCSM = Physical Carrier Sense Method
• Uses the Stop-and-Wait ARQ technique
• Is based on the ACK—and—NAK philosophy

6-40
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 MAC—Media Access Control—of WLAN:
• CSMA/CA—with 2-Approaches—DCF and PCF
• Nodes—computers listen before they transmit
• If no one else is transmitting, the, they transmit.
 Approach-2---CSMA/CA—PCF:
• Aka---VCSM
• PCF = Point Coordination Function
• VCSM = Virtual Carrier Sense Method
• Works well in traditional Ethernet-LANs
• Is based on the RTS—and—CTS philosophy
• Must get approval—permission from the wireless-AP
• RTS = Request to Transmit the Signal
• CTS = Clear to Transmit the Signal
6-41
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 Packet Layout for the DSSS version of the
802.11b Wireless-LAN:
 Each—packet--has 5-parts:
• Preamble
• PLCP—header
• Payload header
• LLC—PDU
• Payload Trailer
 Where we have:
• LLC = Logical Link Control
• PDU = Protocol Data Unit
• PLCP = Physical Layer Convergence Protocol

6-42
IEEE—802.11b Packet-Layout
Preamble PLCP Payload LLC-PDU Payload
Header Header Trailer
15 6 30 1500 4
bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes

 Efficiency = Info-bytes/Total-bytes
= 1500/1545 = 0.9708
 NDR = Nominal Data Rate—(Just an example)
= Efficiency (%) X Capacity (%) X Data Rate (Mbps)
= 97% Efficiency X 85% Capacity X 11 Mbps Data-Rate
= 0.97 X 0.85 X 11 Mbps
= 9.0695 Mbps---million bits per second.
6-43
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 2-Types of Data:
• Digital data
• Analog data
 2-Types of Data Transmission:
• Digital data transmission
• Analog data transmission

6-44
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 There are 2-Types of DSSS:
 DSSS—Version-1:
• Rate of transmission--1 Mbps
• Converts 1-bit into 11-bit sequence
• Conversion is based on BPSK-code
• BPSK = Binary Phase Shift Keying
 DSSS—Version-2:
• Rate of transmission—2 Mbps
• Converts 1-bit into 11-bit sequence
• Conversion is based on QPSK-code
• QPSK = Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

6-45
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 Aka—Ethernet Wireless LAN
• Uses radio-waves
• Always in analog form
• Does not use any cable
 Computer transmits---digital data
 NIC or AP—Access Point
• Translate digital data into analog
• Translates analog data into digital

6-46
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 Bandwidth—what it means:
• The size of the range of frequencies.
• Affects the speed of data transmission
• The greater the bandwidth—the faster is the
transmission.
• The lesser the bandwidth—the slower is the
transmission.

6-47
IEEE—802.11b Standard
 Bandwidth of 802.11b—aka—Wi-Fi
• fu = upper frequency = 2.4835 GHz
• fl = lower frequency = 2.4000 GHz
• Δf = bandwidth (frequency range)
= fu – fl = 0.0835 GHz
= 83.50 MHz
 802.11b—aka—Wi-Fi
• Uses 3-channels
• There are guard-bands between channels
• Each channel has a bandwidth of 22 MHz
• Finds application in cordless-telephones, microwave
ovens and Bluetooth—802.15--technology
6-48
IEEE—802.11a Standard
 802.11a is newer than 802.11b:
• Operates at 5-GHZ frequency range
• (Total bandwidth) Δf = 300 MHz
• Transmits data faster than 802.11b
• Provides 4—to—12 channels
• Range is limited to only—50 meters
• Provides speed at 54 Mbps—up to 15 meters.
 Data rates are as follows:
• 6 Mbps, 9 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 18 Mbps
• 24 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 48 Mbps, 54 Mbps

6-49
IEEE—802.11a Standard
 Transmits data using—radio-waves
 Uses 12-channels:
• Each channel has a bandwidth of 20 MHz
• Each channel has 52 sub-channels
• 48 sub-channels are used for data--info
• 4 sub-channels are used for control—header
• There is guard-band between sub-channels
 Each sub-channel:
• Has bandwidth = 312.5 KHz
• Data transmission takes place in parallel

6-50
IEEE—802.11a Standard
 OFDM-symbol Method:
• OFDM = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
• Is used to make the data conversion before
transmission
 BPSK—QPSK—QAM:
• BPSK—Binary Phase Shift Keying
• QPSK—Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
• QAM—Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
• These are the techniques used to deal with the
transmission of the data—info over the media

6-51
IEEE—802.11a Standard
 6-Mbps Version of 802.11a:
• Deals with a set of 24 data-bits
• Uses OFDM—symbol conversion-technique
• Uses BPSK—data transmission technique
 9-Mbps Version of 802.11a:
• Deals with a set of 36 data-bits
• Uses OFDM—symbol conversion-technique
• Uses BPSK—data transmission technique

6-52
IEEE—802.11a Standard
 12-Mbps Version of 802.11a:
• Deals with a set of 48 data-bits
• Uses OFDM—symbol technique
• Uses QPSK—data-transmission technique
 18-Mbps Version of 802.11a:
• Deals with a set of 72 data-bits
• Uses OFDM—symbol technique
• Uses QPSK—data-transmission technique

6-53
IEEE—802.11a Standard
 24-Mbps Version of 802.11a:
• Deals with a set of 96 data-bits
• Uses OFDM—symbol technique
• Uses QAM—data-transmission technique
 36-Mbps Version of 802.11a:
• Deals with a set of 144 data-bits
• Uses OFDM—symbol technique
• Uses QAM—data-transmission technique

6-54
IEEE—802.11a Standard
 48-Mbps Version of 802.11a:
• Deals with a set of 192 data-bits
• Uses OFDM—symbol technique
• Uses QAM—data-transmission technique
 54-Mbps Version of 802.11a:
• Deals with a set of 216 data-bits
• Uses OFDM—symbol technique
• Uses QAM—data-transmission technique

6-55
802.11b—versus—802.11a
 IEEE-802.11a equipments are not compatible
with the equipments of 802.11b.
• The good aspect of this is that—802.11a
equipment will not inter with 802.11b.
• Therefore, the links of both--802.11a and
802.11b—can run next to each other without
causing any interference.
• Downside of 802.11a—its equipments are more
expensive than 802.11b equipments.
 Next slide—shows:
• The two links—802.11a and 802.11b—are
operating together without any interference.
6-56
802.11a and 802.11b
---running alongside each other---

6-57
IEEE—802.11g Standard
 Got ratified--approved in 2003
• Is the newest technology in the 802.11 family.
• Combines the features of—802.11b and 802.11b
 802.11g—just like 802.11b:
• Supports 802.11b devices
• Provides a good range of100—to—150 meters at
low speed: 5.5—to—11 Mbps
 802.11g—just like 802.11a:
• Offers higher speed of 5.5—to—11 Mbps for a
shorter distance of 15 meters.
6-58
IEEE—802.11g Standard
 802.11g—just like--802.11b:
• Uses the same MAC
• Uses the same error control protocol
• Provides exactly the same packet-layout
 802.11g—packets:
• Has the same packet-layout—just like 802.11a.
• Its preamble and header are always transmitted at
slower speeds up to a maximum—11 Mbps and
• Its payload and the payload-trailer are sent at a
maximum data rate of—54 Mbps.

6-59
IEEE—802.11g Standard
 802.11g—just like—802.11a and 802.11b:
• Uses the same radio waves
 802.11g—just like—802.11b:
• Uses QPSK—PSK
• Provides speeds of 1--2--5.5--11 Mbps.
 802.11g—just like—802.11a:
• Uses QPSK—BPSK--QAM
• Provides speeds of 6--9--12--18 Mbps
• Provides speeds of 24—36—48—54 Mbps

6-60
802.11 WLAN Comparison
IEEE Rated Speed Radio Band Effective
Standard --Mbps-- --GHz-- Distance (meter)
802.11b 11 2.4 30—to--50

802.11a 54 5 10—to--30

802.11g 54 2.4 Not clearly


defined
(a)--Actual speeds are much lower and decline with distance
(b)—These distances are for very good communication.
(c)--Attackers can read some signals and can send their
attack-frames from longer distances.
6-61
Wireless Ethernet LANs
----IEEE 802-11----
URL---http://www.wlan.com---

6-62
Wireless Technology
 Also known as Wireless Networking:
• Transmits over air without physical wire cable.
• Wireless LANs—replace wires with radio
waves (or rarely) with infrared light.
• Transmitting data between PCs/servers/other
NW-devices without the use of cables or
wires.
 Wireless Topology:
• Does not follow any physical pattern!
6-63
Why Wireless LAN!
 Shop for a present.
 Locate your friends.
 Remember a birthday.
 Take and send pictures.
 Browse the mobile Internet.
 Read e-mail from outside office.
 Check on weather conds back home.
 In essence—surfing, shopping and smiling
 Beat your high score and do so much more!
 Hey! That’s mLife! and
 It makes mLife worth living!!!!!
6-64
Types of Wireless Media
Name of the media Type-1 Type-2

Radio Wireless Radio-LPSF Radio-HPSF


Radio-SS Radio-DSSS Radio-FHSS
Infrared Pt-to-Pt Network Broadcast NW
Microwave Terrestrial-Micro Satellite-Micro
SS = Spread Spectrum
LPSF = Low Power Single Frequency
HPSF = High Power Single Frequency

DSSS = Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum


FHSS = Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
6-65
Wireless LANs (IEEE-802.11)
 WLAN = Wireless LANs: dispense with
cables and use radio or infrared frequencies
to transmit through signals through the air.
 WLANs are growing in popularity because
they eliminate cabling and facilitate network
access from a variety of locations and for
mobile workers (as in a hospital).
 The most common wireless networking
standard is IEEE 802.11--called—WLAN
Wireless LAN—or--Wireless Ethernet LAN.
6-66
3G-Wireless LAN
 It’s a high-speed multimedia audio/video/data.
 It’s the 3rd generation of broadband wireless tech
based on cellular phone technology.
 It is defined by the ITU under IMT-2000 global
framework---being able to go anywhere!
 Implemented regionally:
• UMTS—Universal Mobile-Tele-System-- in Europe
• CDMA—Code Div-Multiple Access in North America
• NTT DoCoMo--in Japan (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone
Corporation. DoCoMo—means anywhere!)
 The data transmission rates start at 2-Gbps.
6-67
Wireless LAN Topology
 WLAN Topologies are the same as on Ethernet:
physical star, logical bus---and can actually use
any kind of topological configuration which we
may not even think of.
 Wireless LAN devices use the same radio
frequencies, so they must take turns using the
network.
 Most imp—Wireless-Access Points—These
are connected to an Ethernet hub or server—
transmit radio frequency over an area of several
thousand feet---can penetrate walls or other
non-metal barriers.
6-68
Access Point in Wireless LAN
 AP = Access Point: Its a wireless transmitting-
device used by the WLANs. It is just like a hub, used
in the traditional Ethernet LANs. Maximum
transmission range is about 100-500 feet.
 Usually a set of APs are installed to ensure
complete wireless coverage in a general area.
 Each WLAN computer uses an NIC that transmits
radio signals to the AP.
 Because of the ease of access, security is a
potential problem, therefore, IEEE 802.11 uses 40-
bit data encryption to prevent eavesdropping.
6-69
Wireless Ethernet Access Point
Connected into an Ethernet Switch

6-70
Wireless LANs (IEEE-802.11)
 Wireless LANs transmit data through the air (space)
rather than through wire or cable.
 Wireless LANs use MAC = CSMA/CA (that is
similar to AppleTalk’s CSMA/CA and also Ethernet’s
CSMA/CD).
 4-Types of commonly used wireless LANs:
covered by the IEEE-802.11:
• 1. Infrared (Wireless LAN)
• 2. Radio Wireless LAN
• 3. Radio Spread Spectrum
• 4. Microwave (Wireless LAN)
6-71
Infrared Wireless LANs---#1
 Infrared WLAN---2 Types:
• Diffuse Infrared WLAN---aka--Broadcast WLAN
• Point-to-Point Infrared Technology---also known as
Direct Line of Sight Infrared WLAN
 In general, infrared LANs are the least flexible
because most require direct line of sight between
transmitters and receivers.
 Primary Advantage of a wireless LAN:
• It is the reduction of wiring.
 Primary disadvantage of Wireless LAN:
• Its in the low speed = 1—to--4 Mbps.
6-72
Infrared Wireless LANs
 Diffuse Infrared (Technology):
• A new version of infrared, called diffuse
infrared, operates without a direct line of sight
by bouncing infrared light around a room.
 Point-to-Point Infrared (Technology):
• Remote controls used for TV, VCR and also
CD-players use this PPI--Technology.
• CD-ROM = Compact Disc Read Only Memory

6-73
Infrared Wireless LANs

6-74
Infrared Transmission
 Itis an electromagnetic light wave.
 Has wavelength—from 680 nm up to the
wavelength of a microwave.
 Is used as a short wave transmission media.
 Has a frequency range of 1012—to—1014 MHz
 Is usually associated with the following:
• Laptop computers—Handheld computer
• Peripheral devices—printers—fax machines—
• Digital Cameras—Children’s handheld games.

6-75
Infrared Wireless LANs
 Infrared Pt-to-Pt NW = Infrared WLANs:
• Are less flexible than IEEE 802.11 WLANs because, as
with TV remote controls that are also infrared based, they
require line of sight to work.
• Infrared Hubs and NICs are usually mounted in fixed
positions to ensure they will hit their targets.
• The main advantage of infrared WLANs is reduced wiring.
 Infrared Broadcast NW = Diffuse Infrared:
• This is a new version of the Infrared LAN, operates without
a direct line of sight by bouncing the infrared signal off of
walls, but is only able to operate within a single room and
at distances of only about 50-75 feet.
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Radio Wireless LANs---#2
 Radio waves travel in all directions and
through non-metal objects and thus are more
flexible than infrared systems.
 Most radio LANs have a range of 100-500 feet
and may even reach 1000 feet in open areas.
 Wireless LANs are also being used
increasingly with laptop computers, permitting
new capabilities for mobile computing.

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Radio Wireless LANs---#2
 2-Types of Radio Wireless (LAN):
 Radio-LPSF:
• LPSF = Low Power Single Frequency
• Based on low power single frequency
 Radio-HPSF
• HPSF = High Power Single Frequency
• Based on high power single frequency

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Radio Wireless LANs

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W-LAN Media Access Control
 Wireless
LANs—IEEE 802.11--use contention
approach media access control--CSMA/CA
where CA = collision avoidance (CA).
 With CA--a station waits until another station is
finished transmitting plus an additional random
period of time before sending anything.
 CSMA/CA uses 2-Approaches to MAC:
• PCSM = Physical Carrier Sense Method
• VCSM = Virtual Carrier Sense Method.
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Physical Carrier Sense Method
 PCSM = Physical Carrier Sense Method:
• In this method, a node that wants to send first listens to
make sure that the transmitting node has finished, then
waits a period of time longer.
• Each frame is sent using the Stop-and-Wait ARQ, so by
waiting, the listening node can detect that the sending
node has finished and can start and begin sending its
transmission.
• With Wireless LANs, ACK/NAK signals are a short time
after a frame is received, while stations wishing to send a
frame wait a somewhat longer time, ensuring that no
collision will occur.
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Virtual Carrier Sense Method
 When a computer on a Wireless LAN is near the
transmission limits of the AP at one end and another
computer is near the transmission limits at the other end of
the AP’s range, both computers may be able to transmit to
the AP, but can not detect each other’s signals.
 This is known as the hidden node problem. When it occurs,
the physical carrier sense method will not work.
 VCSM = Virtual carrier sense method:
• Solves this problem by having a transmitting station first
send a request to send (RTS) signal to the AP. If the AP
responds with a clear to send (CTS) signal, the computer
wishing to send a frame can then begin transmitting.
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Radio Spread Spectrum WLAN--#3
 2-Types of Radio Spread Spectrum WLAN:
• Actually there are two forms of the IEEE 802.11b standard
that currently exist::
 Radio-DSSS WLAN
• Radio Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum WLAN:
• DSSS-systems transmit signals through a wide
spectrum of radio frequencies simultaneously.
 Radio-FHSS WLAN
• Radio Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum WLAN
• FHSS-systems transmit signals through the same wide
spectrum of radio frequencies, but use each frequency
in turn.
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Radio Spread Spectrum
-----Wireless Ethernet-LAN-----
 DSSS = Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum:
• Uses the entire frequency band to transmit information.
DSSS is capable of data rates of up to 11 Mbps with
fallback rates of 5.5, 2 and 1 Mbps. Lower rates are used
when interference or congestion occurs.
 FHSS = Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum:
• Divides the frequency band into a series of channels and
then changes its frequency channel about every half a
second, using a pseudorandom sequence. FHSS is more
secure, but is only capable of data rates of 1 or 2 Mbps.

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Radio-SS Wireless LANs

 RadioLANs--both DSSS-Wireless-LAN
and FHSS-Wireless-LAN--have two
disadvantages compared to traditional
wired LANs:
• The increased opportunity for noise—
distortion--attenuation to disrupt
transmissions.
• Wireless LANs have a much slower data
transmission rates.

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Microwave Wireless LANs---#4
 Used—successfully—in WW II in military applns.
 Also finds applications in—Sahara, Amazon,
Buildings and Mountaintops. It has a brighter future
than Coax and TPC.
 2-Typs of Microwave Transmission:
• TMT = Terrestrial Microwave Transmission:
TMT provides line-of-sight communications between
2-points using a parabolic reflector.
• SMT = Satellite Microwave Transmission:
SMT can send/receive signals approximately 1/3rd
the distance around the earth.
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Types of Wireless Ethernet LANs
 Wireless Ethernet LAN
 IEEE-Specification: IEEE-802.11a
• It’s a rapidly evolving LAN technology.
• It’s a combination of Ethernet LAN and Wireless-LAN.
• It translates between IEEE-802.3 and IEEE-802.11
• The standard of this Wireless-Ethernet-LAN is still
being defined---although it is planned to operate in the
5 GHz band and be capable of data rates of up to 54
Mbps, but will probably average about 20 Mbps in
practice.
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Bluetooth Technology
---IEEE 802-15---
URL---http://www.bluetooth.com---

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Was Introduced in 1998--developed as a
computing device.
 Developed as a specification, not as a standard!
 Satisfies the needs of wireless networking over
relatively small areas, such as—between laptop
and cell phone.
 This—bluetooth--is the result a joint collaboration
of several companies, such as:
• Ericsson, IBM
• Intel, Nokia, Toshiba

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Bluetooth—aka—Wireless PAN:
• Makes use of both—radio and infrared tech--
radio frequencies and infrared light.
• Range of WPAN is between 30—to—50 ft.
• Don’t require much battery power to operate.
• Finds application in the following:
 PDAs, Laptops,
 GPS units, Digital cameras
 Audio headsets, Cell phones

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Bluetooth technology:
• Provides short range connection.
• Have same characteristics as WLAN
 Connects small devices within a person’s
small working area.
 Operates on 2-ranges:
• Low-power Bluetooth—range--30—to—50 ft.
• High-power Bluetooth—range—up to 100 ft

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Bluetooth falls behind 802.11:
• Both in respect of range and performance
 In respect of Range:
• 802.11 is typically—300 ft inside offices.
• 802.15 is typically—30—to—50 ft.
 In respect of Performance:
• 802.11 gives—data rates—up to 54 Mbps
• 802.15 lags way behind at around 1-Mbps

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 General purpose LAN-network:
• IEEE--802.11b---Oldest Version
• IEEE--802.11a---Middle generation
• IEEE--802.11g—Newest Version
 Bluetooth—aka—Piconet:
• Consists of not more than 8-devices
• Can also be connected to other Piconets
• Consists of a master and up to 7-slaves.
• Makes use of FHSS-system for rapid hopping

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Master—does what:
• Slaves are controlled by the master
• Slaves do not communicate with each other
• Controls the frequencies and the media access
control used by the master and the slaves.
 Bluetooth packet has 5-parts:
• Access code—and--header
• Payload header—and--payload
• Payload trailer

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Bluetooth uses the following:
• FSK—frequency shift keying
• One frequency for binary—0
• Another frequency for binary—1
• Maximum data rate up to----1 Mbps

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Is a low-power wireless technology
 Uses infrared radiation
 Is a forthcoming WPAN-technology
 Will coexist with Wireless-LAN solutions
 WPAN = Wireless Personal Area Network
 Is a sort of protocol/standard--like:
• WAP = Wireless Application Protocol
• Symbian—a global standard for smart devices
developed under the joint collaboration of Nokia,
Ericsson, Motorola and Britain’s Psion
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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Provides links between:
• Mobile phones
• Mobile/portable computers
• Portable handheld devices---PDAs
• LANs and other electronics
• Ensures connectivity to the Internet
• Connects all the universal short-range radio links.
 Inessence, Its a tech. that allows---PDAs, Laptops
and Cell phones to get linked and communicate.
 Bluetooth---is also alternately known as:
• Piconet
• Walking Network!
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Bluetooth.Com
 It’sa standard protocol and is a
 Seamless networking of very small devices.
 Was first conceived by Ericsson.
 Bluetooth—founded in 1998 as a
collaborative joint venture under---Nokia
(Finns), Ericsson (Sweden), Toshiba
(Japan), IBM, Intel, 3Com, Lucent,
Microsoft, Motorola and more than 700
other big/small vendors or companies.
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Bluetooth.Com
 Bluetooth---isthe implementation of a
protocol defined by the IEEE 802-15---that
defines WPAN—Wireless PAN.
 Operation of WPAN:
• Is limited to a room or hall.
• Is confined to short range frequencies
• With a data rate of 1—to—20 Mbps.
• Designed for small WLANs—8—to—16 stations
operating on battery power.

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Bluetooth.Com
 Unifies wireless audio/video/data/TC/DC
 Will help wireless-devices to communicate
silently and invisibly---without wires---
seamlessly!
 Bluetooth standards include:
• Authentication
• Encryption
• Forward Error Correction
• Automatic Request for Retransmission
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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Named after the 9th –century Danish
Viking Chief—Harold Bluetooth---who
unified the warring tribes in Scandinavia.
 One seafaring-Scandinavian fellow who
raided and plundered settlements on the
coast of northern and western Europe.
 Bluetooth’s gang/ancestors continued
with their plundering activities from 8th—
to—10th centuries.
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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Harold Bluetooth---the Danish Viking tried
to unite all the Baltic Region countries—
Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
 Harold Bluetooth could unite only two
countries---Denmark and Norway.
 Strangely and sadly enough, Harold
Bluetooth was killed by his own son---in
the year 986.

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About Finland!
 Nokia company is located in Finland.
 Its an unlikely technology country.
 It’s a land better known for its reindeer and
very long Arctic nights.
 Finland’s telecommunications providers are
helping people around the world use their
cell-phones.

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Bluetooth--is standardized as IEEE-802.15
 It is a special type of WLAN—aka--WPAN
 Is different from other types of WLANs:
• 802.11b—802.11a—802.11g
• Provide seamlessly networking data
• Confined to a small area---10 meters
• Bluetooth devices are very small and cheap
• Deals with several, separate, data & voice channels
• Next generation of Bluetooth technology—now under
development to provide up to—100m

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Best Practice LAN depends on:
• 2-imp things:
• Data-rate and cost
 Effective Data Rate—depends on 4-things:
• Error rates
• Nominal data rate
• Efficiency of the MAC-protocols
• Efficiency of the data link protocols

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 NMD—Nominal Data Rate:
• NMD = Efficiency X Capacity X Data Rate
• Good NMD is possible provided the APs—
access points—are well placed so that all users
get good signal quality.
 Maximum NMD of the WLANs:
• 802.11b----11 Mbps
• 802.11a----54 Mbps
• 802.11g----54 Mbps

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Nominal Data Rate—802.11b
Preamble PLCP Payload LLC-PDT Payload
Header Header Info-data Trailer
10—bytes 6—bytes 30—bytes 1500--bytes 4—bytes

 Header = 10 + 6 + 30 + 4 = 50—bytes
 Info-bytes = 1500—bytes; Total bytes = 1550—bytes
 Efficiency = Info-bytes/Total bytes = 1500/1550 = 0.9677
 Capacity (being used)—0.85%;
 Data Rate—11 Mbps (given)!
 NMD = Efficiency X Capacity X Data Rate
= 0.9677 X 0.85 X 11 = 9.048387
= 9.0484 Mbps
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Nominal Data Rate—802.11a
Preamble PLCP Payload LLC-PDT Payload
Header Header Info-data Trailer
10—bytes 24—bytes 32—bytes 1500--bytes 10—bytes

 Header = 10 + 24 + 32 + 10 = 76—bytes
 Info-bytes = 1500—bytes; Total bytes = 1576—bytes
 Efficiency = Info-bytes/Total bytes = 1500/1576 = 0.9518
 Capacity (being used)—0.85%;
 Data Rate—54 Mbps (given)!
 NMD = Efficiency X Capacity X Data Rate
= 0.9518 X 0.85 X 54 = 43.68762
= 43.6876 Mbps
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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Wireless Ethernet—802.11b—a—g:
• Uses media access control—CSMA/CA
• PCF—Point coordination function—controlled access
technique.
 Wired Ethernet—802.3:
• Uses media access control—CSMA/CD
• Works good for low traffic
 CSMA = Carrier Sense Multiple Access
• CA = Collision Avoidance
• CD = Collision Detection

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 802.11—WLAN—Wi-Fi operates in 2-
modes.
• Ad-Hoc Mode
• Infrastructure Mode
 Bluetooth—802.15—WPAN—also operates
in 2-modes—defines 2-types of networks.
• 1. Ad-Hoc Mode—aka—Piconet
• 2. Infrastructure mode—aka--Scatternet

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 1. Bluetooth—aka—Piconet:
• Aka—Ad-Hoc mode of operation
• It is a peer-to-peer networking protocol
• It is a small network—contains up to 8-stations
• One master and the other nodes are—slaves
• This means—it can have maximum 7-slaves.
• Master controls—dictates the slaves
• Slave and master communication can be:
 One-to-one—or--One-to-many

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 2. Scatternet:
• Aka—Infrastructure mode of operation
• It is a collection of two or more Piconets
• Obviously, it is a bigger wireless network.
• A slave in one piconet can become a master in
another piconet.
• A slave in piconet-1 can receive message from
its master in piconet-1, and then, acting as a
master of piconet-2, it can deliver to slaves in
the piconet-2.

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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Bluetooth:
• Uses the same 2.45 GHz band as Wireless LANs
• However, it is not compatible with the other IEEE
802.11 standards—802.11b, 802.11a and 802.11g
• Therefore, bluetooth can not be used in locations
that use the Wireless LANs.
 Bluetooth Application:
• This peer-to-peer networking protocol is used to
connect—transparently--multiple consumer
information devices such as—Cellular Phones--
Hand-held Computers, Laptops—Printers and
Digital Cameras.
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IEEE—802.15--Bluetooth!
 Bluetooth Network:
• Aka—Piconet—Walking Network
• Aka—WPAN—Wireless PAN
• It is a kind of small personal or home network.
• Contains maximum—8 nodes--stations
• Provides a 1-Mbps, shared-circuit, wireless standard
• Pico = Trillionth = 1/1000,000,000,000
 Piconet—a small network
• It is actually---Trillionth of a Network/Internet

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Bluetooth—aka--Piconet

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Scatternet
 Scatternet—isformed by grouping—
combining a set of piconets.
• A slave station in one piconet-1 can become
the master in another piconet-2
• This shows that a station can be a member of
two piconets.
• See the next slide for illustration

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Bluetooth—aka--Piconet

6-117
Architecture Services
 IBSS—Independent BSS
• This is a piconet
• It is a small independent WLAN
• Does not have a WAP—aka—AP—Access Point
 BSS---Basic Service Set
• It is combination of multiple piconets
• All clients communicate with each other because of an
AP which could be a client computer that could work as
an Ethernet-router or gateway.
 ESS—Extended Service Set
• Is made of multiple BASs and multiple APs.

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IBSS and BSS

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ESS—Extended Service Set

6-120
Bluetooth LMS-Chip
 LMS-Chip = Link-Manager-SW microchip
 It’s a radio-module Microsoft microchip
 It’s the most imp Bluetooth-software
installed in all wireless/handheld/mini-
devices of the walking-network.
 Creates links between Bluetooth-devices.
 Sends/receivesaudio/data to/from W-devices.
 Ensures transmission of data in the form of
short bursts.

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Bluetooth-Modes
 Thereare 5-diff modes---determined by the
Link Manager Software (LMS)--in which the
Bluetooth operates:
• Page-mode
• Park-mode
• Hold-mode
• Inquiry-mode
• Standby/Sniff-mode

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Bluetooth
 Bluetooth’s controlled MAC technique user
has a master device that polls up to 8
“slave” devices.
 Examples of Bluetooth applications
include the following:
• Linking a wireless mouse,
• Linking a telephone headset, or
• Linking a PDA---Palm handheld computer---
to a home network.

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MIMO—Next Generation of Wi-Fi
 MIMO—Multiple Input Multiple Output
• Is the next generation of WLAN
• Aka—Next generation of Wi-Fi
• Promises to boost the current WLAN-tech.
• Promises to dramatically boost the WLAN throughput.
• Being designed to provide thruput from easily 40—to--
100 Mbps.
• Currently vendors actively developing this MIMO-
technology—mainly by Silicon Valley vendors such as:
 Airgo, Belkin, Bermai, Broadcom
 Conexent Systems, STMicroelectronics

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MIMO—Next Generation of Wi-Fi
 Belongs to the IEEE—802.11 family.
• Is the next generation of WiFi—WLAN
• First draft is expected by mid-2005.
• The standard is expected to be ratified, hopefully, by
the end of 2005 or later and the final standard is
expected to emerge by late 2006 or early 2007.
• MIMO—Products likely to develop soon thereafter.
• Will use the following:
 Two—to—four MIMO-antennas at each end of the link.
 Will transmit—receive data over multiple paths—on only
a single channel.

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MIMO—Next Generation of Wi-Fi
 MIMO—is currently being developed by the Airgo
Networks Inc.
• Reduces external interferences
• Boosts—speeds, improves—reliability.
• Is compatible with the other older standards.
• Will increase the performance of the older equipment.
• Uses several antennas to expand the range of 802.11
wireless services.
• Is expected to provide 4-times—the coverage area and
also the speed of equipment based on the 802.11b and
802.11g standards.

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MIMO—Next Generation of Wi-Fi
 The Silicon Valley vendor—Airgo Networks
Inc--has already developed the MIMO
chips—and also currently still developing.
 Speculation about Price for the following:
• MIMO router---$179.99
• MIMO notebook adapter---NIC--$129.99
 Incontrast, the Belkin 802.11g—WLAN—
DSL/Cable Gateway Router costs--$90.00

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MIMO—Next Generation of Wi-Fi
 Airgo Networks Inc says—MIMI-technology
will provide—benefits of the forthcoming
standards to the existing 802.11g tech:
• Higher speeds
• Greater coverage
• However, there are still some conflicting
proposals about what this MIMO will look like.

6-128
WLAN Security

6-129
Why we need WLAN-Security?
 WLAN transmits WD--wireless-data
 WLAN depends on RF—radio frequency.
 RF—radio frequency:
• Passes thru walls—floors—ceilings of a building.
• As a result, WD is not confined to the user’s area.
• WD can be received by an unintended user.
• As a result, WLAN is opening a potential threat to the
wireless network security.
• Anyone walking with a mobile client computer—driving
within the range of an WAP—even outside your home—
office—can easily pick up the signal from your home—
WLAN computers.

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Secure Access to 802.11—Wi-Fi
 The following methods—individually and
collectively—can be used to secure access
to 802.11 networks:
• Network Identifier---SSID
• MAC—Address Filtering
• WEP—Wired Equivalent Privacy
• VPN—Virtual Private Network
• PPF—Personal Private Firewall
• WTL = Wireless Transport Layer Security
• SSH—Secure Shell
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Features of WLAN-Security
 SSID = Service Set Identification
• It is a kind of password to have access.
• Enables the client to join the wireless network.
• Every data-packet includes a SSID
• AP—access point—uses SSID to control the
data traffic; any packet without a correct SSID
is not processed by the AP.
• AP—in conjunction with SSID--determines if
the client is a member of the network.
• However, SSID does not ensure good security
because of packet-sniffing.
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Features of WLAN-Security
 MAC—address filtering:
• MAC = Media Access Control—Layer-2.
• Access points are identified with network names and
passwords.
• Client-computer can be identified by the unique MAC-
address of its 802.11—Wi-Fi—NW-card.
• Access points are configured with the list of MAC-
addresses associated with the client-computers allowed
to access the wireless-NW.
• This type of security is best suited for small networks.

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Features of WLAN-Security
 WEP = Wired Equivalent Privacy:
• It is an encryption algorithm—software program.
• Provides encryption of data to ensure security.
• Encryption is based on 40-bits—known as 40-bit
encryption and 128 bits—known as 128-bit
encryption.
• Theoretically, it is equivalent to a wired circuit that
cannot be tapped, sniffed or monitored in any other way.
• It is quite challenging for large WLANs.
 WEP—has 3-Basic Services:
• Confidentiality--Integrity--Authentication
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Features of WLAN-Security
 EAP = Extensible Authentication Protocol:
• This is used to verify the user’s authentication
• It is a layer-2—MAC-address--security protocol
• 4-Types of commonly used EAP-methods:
 EAP-MD5, LEAP, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS
 LEAP—Aka—EAP Cisco Wireless
• Developed by the Cisco Inc.
 WEP and EAP:
• When these two protocols are jointly installed, their joint
collaboration ensures much better security for the
wireless networking environment..

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Features of WLAN-Security
 WPA = Wi-Fi Protected Access:
• Aka—Wireless Protected Access
• It is currently actively under development.
• It is a newer—future security for the WLAN.
• Provides security to each WLAN-packet.
• Provides security to each WLAN-packet.
• Every packet is secured—encrypted—and decrypted
under the control of a different key.
• WAP is more sophisticated and also more complex
than the WEP-EAP security.
 WPA—in essence—provides:
• WPA-Authentication
• WPA Key Management

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Features of WLAN-Security
 VPN—Virtual Private Network:
• VPN is used to provide secure wireless access
• Good for larger networks with high security
requirements.
• Provides remote workers secure access—to
the network via the Internet.
• Provides a secure, dedicated path or tunnel
thru the public network, just like a tunnel.
• Authentication and full encryption—over the
wireless network—are provided thru the VPN-
server.
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VPN—Virtual Private Network
 Common Protocols used to establish a
VPN- tunnel are the following:
• PPTP = Point –to-Point Tunneling Protocol--
Created by 3Com, Ascend, Microsoft and also ECI-
Telematics, Inc.
• L2TP = Layer-2 Tunneling Protocol---This is a
combination of PPTP and L2F (designed by Cisco
Systems) which evolved thru the IETF—
Engineering Task Force.
• IPSec = Internet Protocol Security—is a kind of
architecture—protocol—related IKE—Internet Key
Exchange.
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VPN—Virtual Private Networks
 VPN—Virtual Private Networks:
• A VPN connection is a tunnel.
• VPN tunnels typically encrypt data.
• Use the Internet as a connection medium.
• These are an alternative to dial-up networks.
 Advantages of VPN:
• Low costs
• High productivity
• Fewer external connection points
 Disadvantages of VPN:
• Risk of attacks
• Risk of eavesdropping
• High exposure to attackers
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Features of WLAN-Security
 PPF—Personal Private Firewall:
• Unauthorized users can access the 802.11
wireless client computers.
• All 802.11—Wi-Fi—client systems should be
equipped with personal firewall software.
• PPF-software can be used to protect the
roaming user’s confidential local data against
many types of possible attacks.

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Features of WLAN-Security
 WTL—Wireless Transport Layer Security:
• Is the security layer of WAP—Wireless Application
Protocol—that provides a suite of protocols in
layers 3—thru—7 of the OSI model.
• WTL is based on the widely used TLS—Transport
Layer Security.
• This is a modified version of TLS.
• Finds application exclusively for the wireless
communications—like—banking transactions over
a wireless device.

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Features of WLAN-Security
 SSH—Secure Shell:
• Is a secure form of terminal access to other systems
and Prevents the man-in-the-middle attacks.
• Provides authentication and secure—encrypted
communications over insecure channels.
• It is a computer program--enables a user to log into a
remote machine, over a network, to execute commands
and to move files from one machine to another.
• It is a low-cost alternative to the normal VPN--
communications because of its simple installation and
delivery of well-encrypted secure communications.

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SSH—Secure Shell--Protocol
 Is intended to provide secure file transfer
 Is intended to replace FTP and Telnet
 Uses public key encryption
 Provides protection from the following:
• Packet spoofing
• IP/Host spoofing
• Password sniffing
• Eavesdropping

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SSH—Secure Shell--Protocol
 Packet spoofing:
• An IP-packet appears to be yours, but is actually from
someone’s computer.
 IP/Host spoofing:
• An IP-address or host name is yours, but unfortunately
someone else is using it.
 Password sniffing:
• The network packets that contain your password are
being read.
 Eavesdropping:
• The network packets are read by an unauthorized
person.
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Features of WLAN-Security
 802.1X—Port-based—NAC:
• NAC = Network Access Control
• 802.1X—protocol was developed as an add-on to all
layer-2 network access protocols.
• Provides a more generalized set of forms.
• This protocol—802.1X--is intended to provide
generalized authentication mechanism for network
access.
• Best of all, this protocol—802.1X--provides a much
stronger authentication mechanism than any of the
options available in 802.11x.

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WLAN Security
 WLAN must be protected using:
• Turn on all the wireless security features.
• Personal Private Firewalls
• Intrusion detection methods
• SSID—Service Set Identifier—to used to ensure
the authentication of the user.
• WEP—EAP can also be used.
• WPA—WiFi Protected Access—can also be used.
• LEAP—used by Cisco as an authentication system.
• VPN—virtual private network—provides security.
• SSH and Secure-FTP----SSH—Secure Shell—is
used to encrypt the data traffic between the hosts.

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IMPROVING
WLAN PERFORMANCE

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Improving WLAN Performance
 3-important Factors:
• Check the devices—clients, servers, APs
• Check the wireless circuits between the nodes.
• Reduce the demand placed on the network.
 1. Improve the Device Performance:
• Since 802.11g is more sophisticated and also
more advanced in technology, replace the
802.11b cards with newer 802.11g cards.

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Improving WLAN Performance
 2. Improve the Circuit Capacity:
• Upgrade the 802.11b or 802.11a to the current newer,
advanced, technology---802.11g.
• Install the AP—access points—on ceilings or high up
on walls.
• Install directional antennas, rather than omni-directional
antennas. This will enhance the signal quality and will
provide stronger and focused signal.
 3. Reduce the Network Demand:
• If possible, connect—plug-in--the laptop computer into
an Ethernet wall-jack.

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Summary of Chap-7
 4-Types of WLAN—Wireless LANs:
• IEEE--802-11b------WLAN—aka—Wi-Fi
• IEEE--802-11a------WLAN—aka—Wi-Fi
• IEEE--802-11g------WLAN—aka—Wi-Fi
• IEEE--802-15--------WPAN—Bluetooth--Piconet
 WLAN—Wireless LAN
• Aka—WI-Fi—Wireless Fidelity
 IEEE--802-15------WPAN
• WPAN—Wireless Personal Area Network
• Aka—Bluetooth—aka---Piconet

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Summary of Chap-7
 IEEE—802.11b—WLAN:
• Aka—Wireless Ethernet-LAN
• Dominates the WLAN market.
• Maximum speed = 1—to—11 Mbps
• Frequency range = 2.40 GHz
• Deals with radio talk on 15 specific channels
• MAC-Mechanism = CSMA/CA

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Summary of Chap-7
 IEEE—802.11a
• Aka—Wireless Ethernet-LAN
• Data Rates = 1—6—9—12—18—24—36—54 Mbps
• Frequency range = 5.00 GHz
• MAC-Mechanism = CSMA/CA
• Range—50 meters for 6—to—12 Mbps;
Range---15 meters for 36—to—54 Mbps
• Uses—FDM—Frequency Division Multiplexing to create
48 separate channels.

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Summary of Chap-7
 IEEE—802.11g
• Is the newest, high speed, WLAN-standard
• Combines the best features of 802.11b and 802.11a
• Completely compatible with 802.11b
• Maximum speed = 54 Mbps---data rate.
• Distance range = 150 meters
• MAC-Mechanism = CSMA/CA
 IEEE—802.15---aka--Bluetooth
• Bluetooth network--aka—Piconet
• Basic data rate = 1 Mbps
• Distance range = 10 meters
• Provides—3—separate voice channels

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Summary of Chap-7
 MIMO—Multiple Input Multiple Output
• Is the next generation of Wi-Fi—WLAN
• Being actively developed by the Airgo Networks
Inc as well as Belkin, in the Silicon Valley.
• Belongs to the 802.11b—802.11a—802.11g
family and is expected to be ratified late 2005
and later—early 2006.
• Is expected to provide higher speed—reliabilty-
--performance—throughput—coverage area as
compared to the existing 802.11b and 802.11g
standards.
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Summary of Chap-7
 Best Practices of WLAN:
• For cost and speed point of view, we think the best
choice for mobility---802.11b
 WLAN-Security:
• SSID = Service Set Identification
• WEP = Wired Equivalent Privacy
• WPA = Wi-Fi Protected Access (under devt.)
 Widely-used WLAN in the market:
• IEEE—802.11b
• Aka—Wi-Fi—Wireless Fidelity
• Currently dominates the WLAN market.

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Summary of Chap-7
 Improving the LAN Performance:
• Improve Device Performance
• Improve Circuit Capacity
• Reduce Network Demand
 Just a Note:
• Best wired network
 Switched 10Base-T—(Cat-5 and Cat-5e cables)
 Switched100Base-T—provides higher speed

• As 802.11a—and--802.11g get matured, they


will provide serious competition for 802.11b
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End of Chap-7
Wireless Local Area Networks

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