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 

Sentence elements that are alike in


function should also be alike in
construction.
These elements should be in the
same grammatical form . . .
Parallel structure
Parallel is a word in mathematics.
Two or more ideas in a sentence
are related and serve a similar
purpose, they are phrased on same
parts, similarly put together.
 WORDS:
Thinking
Running
INFINITIVES:
To see
To understand
 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE:
At the time
In the house
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE:
Because I care
After they met
Grammatically Equal
Equal in Sentence elements
It usually appear in a series, in
compound structures, in
comparisons, and in contrasted
elements
Can be two or more words of the
same part of speech, two or more
phrases of the same type, or two or
more clauses of the same type.
 a and b
 a, b, and c
 a or b
 a, b, or c
 not only a but also b
The clauses or phrases joined by
conjunction should have similar
grammatical structure.
 Example:
My first-year English professor was
informative, lively, and a source of
information.
My first-year English professor was (a)
informative, (b) lively, and a (c) source
of information.
Faulty parallelism
 change the elements a and b into noun
phrases or the element c into an adjective.
ALWAYS CHOOSE THE SIMPLEST OPTION.
Change the final element into an adjective
Example:
My first-year English professor was
informative, lively, and inspiring
PARALLEL IN WORDS
isthe placement of equal ideas in
words, phrases, or clauses of
similar types.
Parallelism shows coordinate
structures in sentences.
Usually, you can observe this
parallel structure when you are
enumerating things or ideas.
It is in this case where elements of
the same ideas or grammatical
pattern are linked together.
Iftwo or more ideas in a sentence
stand for ideas that are of equal
importance or similar purpose, they
gain clearness and emphasis if they
are expressed in the same
grammatical structure.
Parallelism means:
“like construction for like ideas”.
In ordinary writing, the principle of
parallelism implies balanced in series.
N N
Adj Adj
PrepP PrepP
Gerund Gerund
Infinitive Infinitive
Phrase Phrase
Clause Clause
Ex.
My English professor not only
demonstrated how to reason persuasively
but also how to avoid logical fallacies.
My English professor not only
demonstrated (a) how to reason
persuasively but also (b) how to avoid
logical fallacies.
Note that element a begins with a verb
but element b doesn’t.
To repair the faulty parallelism, you can
add a verb to the start of element b.
However, since the same verb will work
for both parts of the construction, the
elegant solution is to drag the verb to
the front of the whole construction.
Ex.
My English professor demonstrated not
only (a) how to reason persuasively but
also (b) how to avoid logical fallacies.
He warned me to revise my essay and
that I should pay close attention to
parallel structures.
He warned me (a) to revise my essay
and (b) that I should pay close attention
to parallel structures.
To repair the problem, choose either an
infinitive
Add that clause on both sides of the a
and b construction.
He warned me to revise my essay and
that to pay close attention to parallel
structures.
PARALLEL WORDS
Thinking and running often
accompany one another as I
exercise.
I do not enjoy thinking or running.
PARALLEL PHRASES
She like to look but not to listen.
You will find the light bulbs in the
closet or under the kitchen.
PARALLEL CLAUSES
The manager praised her
employees because they were
dedicated and because they were
willing to work on weekends for
free.
Your new training program was
stimulating and challenging.
Parallel adjectives
He blocks and tackles skillfully.
Parallel Verbs
He is a man who has worked hard
and whom we all respect.
Parallel dependent Clause
I shall return to Purdue, and she
will return to smith.
Parallel Independent Clause
Dianne revels in sweet chocolate
eclairs, long moonlit walks, and
classic jazz music.
Adjective- adjective- object
PARALLEL in STRUCTURE
SERIES OF WORDS
She wanted three things: money,
power, and security.
SERIES OF INFINITIVES
There was an opportunity to do my
taxes, to request an extensions, or
to explain my situation.
SERIES OF PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
He found cleaning supplies in the
closet, under the sink, but not in the
garage.
SERIES OF CLAUSES
The company doesn’t care about who
you are, how you got here, or why you
have come.
 
Gian plays basketball and skillfully.
Gian plays basketball skillfully.
Jessabyl enjoys reading plays and
poetry.
Jessabyl enjoys reading plays and
poetry.
Two noun
Justine blocks and tackles skillfully.
Justine blocks and tackles skillfully.
Two verbs
Craig looked in the drawers and
under the beds.
Craig looked in the drawers and
under the beds.
Two Prepositional Phrases
Identify the parallel structures . .
Makati, Marikina, and Antipolo are
just some of the progressive cities in
the Philippines.
Makati, Marikina, and Antipolo are
just some of the progressive cities in
the Philippines.
(Series of Nouns)
Identify the parallel structures . .
Cell phones are becoming small,
interactive, and beautiful with varied
features.
Cell phones are becoming small,
interactive, and beautiful with varied
features.
(Series of Adjectives)
Identify the parallel structures . .
Writing, swimming, and watching
movies are his favorite past time.
Writing, swimming, and watching
movies are his favorite past time.
(Series of Gerunds)
Identify the parallel structures . .
Larry felt unsure of himself, out of
place, and oddly awkward.
Larry felt unsure of himself, out of
place, and oddly awkward.
(Series of Phrases)
Identifythe parallel structures . .
Misha campaigned against crime and
she mobilized volunteer group against
drugs.
Misha campaigned against crime and
she mobilized volunteer group against
drugs.
(Series of Clauses)
Kemper, D., Sebranek, P., & Meyer, V.
(2012). Write source: Writing and
grammar. United States of America:
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing
Company.
Sebastian, E. (2016). English
communication 2 (2nd ed.). Quezon,
Philippines: C & E Publishing
Incorporated.
Forlini, G., et al. (2010). Grammar and
composition. Jurong, Singapore:
Pearson Education South Asia Pte.
Ltd.