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Mattos, 2006

Sarcoptes scabiei, otherwise known as scabies, is a highly


contagious infestation of microscopic mites that affect humans
and animals alike.
Types of scabies

• Infant Scabies: This occurs in babies and young children, and is often
misdiagnosed or mistreated. Scabies will affect the whole body of the child,
and there will be a large amount of pustules.

• Scabies Incognito: Normally, if a strong type of treatment, such as steroids,


are applied then the scabies are masked and the lesions are suppressed.

• Clean Man’s Scabies: This is seen in individuals who bathe regularly, and
keep very clean. In this case, the lesions are minimal and hard to see.
Itching tends to be not as intense. (Babu, 2006).
Types of scabies
Norwegian Scabies

 Norwegian Scabies: This is an


intense case of crusted scabies. In
this case, there can be up to
hundreds or thousands of mites
within the lesions. This occurs
commonly in autoimmune deficient
individuals, or people who are
mentally challenged. (Babu, 2006).

 Animal Scabies: Animals are


susceptible to scabies too. Domestic
pets that contract scabies are liable
to pass it on to the other members of
the household as well. .
Features of scabies mites
 Scabies are a certain type of mite. Mites are
related to the arachnid family the same as
ticks and spiders.
 Scabies are creamy white with brown legs and
mouthparts.
 The adult female is about 0.4 mm long and 0.3
mm wide. The adult male is smaller in both
dimensions by one third. Also need a
microscope to actually see the mite itself.

 They have no armor, no trachea, and no eyes.


 Scabies mites have no respiratory system. They breathe
through the skin.
 They can be very mobile when not inside a host.
 They have 8 legs with the two in the front as walking legs.
 Scabies have “suckers” that allow them to attach to surfaces to
walk upwards.
Reproduction
oThe female mite finds a host and burrows down into his or her skin.

oAs the female is burrowing through the host’s skin she leaves a trail of
eggs. She can leave two to three eggs a day.

o The eggs will then hatch about four days after they are laid. The new
larvae grow and shed their outer coat about two times and then become
adults.

Haggstrom, 2011
Reproduction
o After fully grown the adult mites burrow through the skin
to the surface to find a mate.

o Males do not dig burrows. Instead, they stay on the skin’s


surface waiting for females to mate with

o After the females mate they return A picture of a burrow


inside the skin where they continue to
burrow and lay eggs. Then the process
starts all over again.

o The entire life cycle of the mites are 10-


14 days, and usually they live for
about 30 days.

Geary, 2006
.

Scabies can be picked up by several different ways

 Most commonly is direct prolonged body-to-body contact. This


occurs in homes between family members. Even more commonly
between people who share beds or are sexual partners.

 Sharing clothing or bedding is another form of transmission, but not


as common. JoshLawton, 2005

Pinprick, 2005
Most common symptom is
severe itching also known as
 pruritus. Itching tend to get
worse during nights or after
hot showers pruritus

Armpit Penis
Buttocks
Wrist
Waist
Nipples
Elbow

Webbing between fingers


The head, face, neck, palms, and soles are
common sites for infants that contract
scabies.
Symptoms don’t usually show up until
two to six weeks after contracted; however,
if someone has been re-infested then
symptoms can show up in a week.

In individuals with weakened immune


systems mites tend to be present in large
amounts, which is commonly known as
Norwegian Scabies.
Steschke, 2005.
 Severe bacterial infections my occur from all the scratching.
Scratching tears open the skin and dirt from your nails and
other environmental factors can contaminate the wound
and cause an infection.

 Bacterial infections can lead to inflammation of the kidneys


called post- streptococcal glomerulonephritis. “

Scabies is not normally fatal, but


if lft untreated some serious
health issues may arise.
 Diagnosis can be made based of an
assessment of the rash and appearance.

 When convenient, taking samples of the


mite, mite eggs, and fecal matter is
important for proper diagnosis. These
items can be obtained by a skin scrapping
or removing them from a burrow with a
needle.

Dalboz17, 2009.
Permethrin cream, 5 percent (Elimite). Permethrin is a topical cream that contains
chemicals that kill scabies mites and their eggs. It is generally considered safe for
adults, pregnant women, and children ages 2 months and older. This medicine is not
recommended for nursing mothers.
Lindane lotion. This medication — also a chemical treatment — is recommended
only for people who can't tolerate other approved treatments, or for whom other
treatments didn't work. This medication isn't safe for children younger than age 2
years, women who are pregnant or nursing, the elderly, or anyone who weighs less
than 110 pounds (50 kilograms).
Crotamiton (Eurax). This medication is available as a cream or a lotion. It's
applied once a day for two days. This medication isn't recommended for children
or for women who are pregnant or nursing. Frequent treatment failure has been
reported with crotamiton.
Ivermectin (Stromectol). Doctors may prescribe this oral medication for people
with altered immune systems, for people who have crusted scabies, or for
people who don't respond to the prescription lotions and creams. Ivermectin
isn't recommended for women who are pregnant or nursing, or for children who
weigh less than 33 pounds (15 kg).