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History of Islam

Advent of Islam

Submitted by: Zain Bucha

Submitted to: Professor Shoaib
• Muhammad bin Qasim was born around 695 AD. He
belonged to the Saqqafi tribe; that had originated from Taif in
• Profession: Umayyad general
• Muhammad-bin-Qasim was appointed the governor of Persia
while in his teens.
• There is also a popular tradition that presents him as the son-
in-law of Hajjaj bin Yousuf
• He conquered the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus
River for the Umayyad Caliphate
• Died: 715
• Sabuktigin was of Turkic And born around 942 CE
• Abu Mansur Sabuktigin was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty,
ruling from  367 A.H/977 A.D to 387 A.H/997A.D
• Conferred the titles of Amīr al-umara (Chief of the Nobles),
and Wakīl-e Mūtlak (Representative), ultimately being made general
• In 994 he was involved in aiding Nuh II of the Samanids against
internal uprisings and defeated the rebels at Balkh and then at 
Nishapur, thereby earning for himself the title of Nāsir ud-
Dīn ("Hero of the Faith")
• After becoming sick during one of his campaigns, Sabuktigin died in
August 997 while travelling from Balkh to Ghazni in Afghanistan.
Muhammad Ghaznavi
• Mahmood Gaznavi was born in 971AD, in khurasan.
•  In 994 Mahmood joined his father in the conquest of Ghazni for Samanid
ruler, it was the time of instability for Samanid Empire
• In 998AD Mahmood took control of the Ghazni and also conquered
• Mahmood of Ghazni destroyed important Hindu shrine- Krishna
Janmabhoomi Temple (known as Kesava Deo Temple) in 1017 AD along
with several other Hindu and Buddhist temples in the holy city of Mathura.
• After the conquest of Multan and Lahore, Mahmood made Punjab a part of
his empire in 1021. He also established his provincial headquarters at
• In 1001 AD, he started his military companies, which were lasted before his
death in 1030 AD.
Muhamad Ghauri
• Sultan Shahab -ud -din Muhammad also known as, Muizzuddin
Muhammad Bin Sam, was born in 1162
• He laid the foundation for Muslim rule in India and his slave Qutb
-ud -din Aibak became the founder of the first Turkish rule in India
•  He belonged to the Ghorid dynasty which replaced the Ghaznavids
in Afghanistan
•  He fought the first battle of Tarain in 1191 against Raja Prithviraj
Chauhan; the most powerful raja of India
• In 1173 AD Shahab-ud-Din Ghuri finally brought an end of
Ghaznavid Empire and established their dynastic rule
• He remained loyal to his elder brother Ghiyas-ud-din and helped
him in his invasions until his death in 1202 AD
Qutubudin Aibak (Slave Dynesty)
• Qutbuddin Aibak is known in history as the founder of the slave
dynasty and it is believed that the dynasty derives its name from
Qutbuddin who was originally a slave.
•  He first strengthened his position in Delhi and Lahore and then the
most of Turkish nobles were persuaded to accept his subordination
• he succeeded in maintaining separate and independent status of the
Delhi Sultanate
• Mostly he remained busy in defending his independent position.
That is why he remained mostly at Lahore instead of Delhi.
• He got very little time as an independent ruler
• While playing Chaughan (horse polo), he fell from his horse and
soon died in 1210 A.D
• Shamsuddin Iltutmish was a slave of Qutbuddin Aibak
• In 1206, he held the charge of Badaun as one of the most
trusted lieutenants of Aibak
• Iltutmish was invited from Badaun to assume the leadership
of Sultanate. Aram Shah refused to abdicate but was
defeated and deposed by Iltutmish in 1211
•  In 1235, Iltutmish made an attempt to bring the Khokhars
under his subjugation, but the Khokhars showed no signs of
•  Exhausted by continuous warfare, Iltutmish fell sick,
returned to Delhi and breathed his last in April, 1236.
End of Slave dynasty
• The Indian slave dynasty lasted from 1206 to 1290
•  The slave dynasty was the first Muslim dynasty to rule India
• The history of the slave dynasty begins with the rule of
Qutub-ud-din Aibak.
• Qutb-ud-din Aibak, Shams-ud-din Iltutmush and Ghiyas-ud-
din Balban were the three great Sultans of the era
• The most important institution that developed under the
Slave Dynasty was the institution of Chalgan or the Forty.
Chalgan were a corps of highly placed and powerful officers,
whom Iltutmush had organized as his personal supporters
The Khiljis
Jalaluddin Feroz Khilji
• Malik Feroz, the founder of Khalji dynasty, ascended the throne on
3rd June, 1290 as Jalaluddin Firoz Shah
• The Khaljis were Central Asian in origin but had lived in Afghanistan so
long that they had become different from the Turks in their customs
and manners
•  thousands of thugs and murderers were captured. Instead of punishing
them the Sultan sent them to Bengal in boats down the Gangas and
there they were set free
• Firoz was more successful in his a campaign against the Mongols
• As regards an estimate of Jalaluddin, he was successful general before
becoming the king but gave up the policy of aggression after becoming
the Sultan. He followed the policy of peace and reconciliation towards
Alaudin Khilji
• Alauddin Khalji was the nephew and son- in- law of
Jalaluddin Khalji.
• In 1296, after a treacherous murder of his uncle Jalaluddin
Firoz Khalji, he proceeded to Delhi to acquire the throne
• He was brave soldier and a vigorous ruler.
• He crushed the power of nobility to bring about peace in the
•  Although, Alauddin was quite illiterate but he had great
administrative and organizing qualities. He laid the
foundation of highly organized administrative machinery
through his reforms.
The Tughlaqs
Ghiysuddin Tughlaq Shah
• Ghiyath-ud-din Tughlaq was the founder of Tughlaq Dynasty. His father
Malik Tughlaq was a Turkish slave of Ghiyath-ud-din Balban and his
mother was a Jat lady of Punjab.
• The administration of Ghiyath-ud-din was based upon the principles of
justice and moderation.
•  He improved the means of communication and conditions of roads,
bridges and canals.
•   The departments of Justice and Police worked efficiently, and the
greatest security prevailed in the remotest parts of the empire.
• Ghiyath-ud-din died in 1325 as a result of the falling of a pavilion hastily
constructed by his son at Afghanpur (near Delhi) to receive him before
his ceremonial entry into the capital on return from his successful
campaign in Bengal
Muhammad Bin Tughluq
• Muhammad bin Tughlaq Shah, generally known as Muhammad Tughlaq, who
ascended the throne on the death of his father has been a puzzle to the historians
• He was well versed in logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and physical
sciences also had the knowledge of medicine and dialectics
• In his era the rains are said to have failed for seven successive years (1335-1342)
and there was wide spread famine.
• n 1327, he decided to change the seat of government to more centralized
position to control the rebellions in the South. He selected the city of Divagiri for
this purpose and renamed it as Daulatabad
• Muhammad Tughlaq’s policy towards Sufi saints was as much different as his
other policies. He thought the position and esteemed that Sufi saints held was a 
danger to the throne so he took various steps to break their power
• In1351, the king was marching  towards Thatta to put down the revolt there when
he fell ill and died
Feroz Shah Tughluq
• Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the third ruler of Tughlaq dynasty that ruled
over Delhi from 1320 to 1412 AD. Tughlaq was in power from 1351
to 1388 AD.
• Firoz was different from his predecessor when it came to ruling.
Forget about conquering new areas, he did not even try to claim
the areas which were split away. Many regions took autonomy
while he was in power
• He established the Diwan-i-Khairat -- office for charity
• He established the Diwan-i-Bundagan -- department of slave
• He established Sarais (rest house) for the benefits of merchants
and other travellers
• He adopted the Iqtadari framework
The Sayyid Dynasty
• The first Sayyid ruler of Delhi was Khizr Khan (reigned 1414–21),
who had been governor of the Punjab.
• This family claimed to be sayyids, or descendants of the Prophet
• He and his three successors occupied themselves in raids to collect
revenue, barely maintaining themselves against the Sharqī sultans
to the east and the Khokars to the northwest. 
• Khizr’s successor, Mubārak Shah, had some success, but, after the
latter’s assassination in 1434
• his two successors, Muḥammad Shah and ʿĀlam Shah, proved
• Ālam Shah abandoned Delhi for Badaun in 1448
The Lodhis
Bahlul Lodhi
• Bahlol Lodhi was the founder of the Lodhi Dynasty.
• He tried to take Multan from Hussain Langah, but did
not succeed.
• Bahlol was not only the founder of the Lodhi dynasty
but was responsible for its strength and glory
• His great achievement was the annexation of Jaunpur
which defied him for many years.
• Bahlol was forced to spend most of his time in fighting
wars and consequently there was hardly any time left
for civil administration
Sikandar Lodhi
• Bahlol Lodhi was succeeded by his son Nizam Khan who took up the title of
Sikandar Shah
• There was some hesitation on part of the nobles to accept Sikandar Shah as
their ruler as his mother was the daughter of a goldsmith and her son was
more of a plebeian than a prince. However this hesitation was overcome and
he became the king.
• Sikandar Shah transferred his capital from Delhi to Sikandria, a suberb of Agra,
the Sultan wanted to have more effective control over the fief-holders of
Etawah, Biyana, Koil, Gawalior and Dholpur. The new city of Agra was founded
in 1504 and very soon a beautiful town came into existence. The Sultan also
transferred his residence
• Sikandar Lodhi was a very striking figure of medieval India from Delhi to Agra.
• Unfortunately he was narrow-minded and fanatical in religious matters and
injured the feelings of his Hindu subjects.
Ibrahim Lodhi
• After the death of Sikandar Shah, his eldest son Ibrahim
was put on the throne on 21st November 1517 with the
unanimous consent of the Afghan Nobles and he took
up the title of Ibrahim Shah
• After early incursions confined to the north-west and
the Punjab, Babur met Ibrahim on 21st April, 1526 in the
first battle of Panipat, and, by defeating him and
capturing Dehli and Agra, laid the foundation of Mughal
rule. This was also the end of Lodhi dynasty with the
death of Ibrahim Lodhi at the battlefield of Panipat
• Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur founded the Mughal
Empire in India after defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the
Battle of Panipat in 1526
• In 1528, he captured Chanderi from the Rajput chief
Medini Rao, and a year later he defeated the Afghan
chiefs under Mahmud Lodhi in the battle of Ghagra
at Bihar. These conquests made Babur the “Master
of Hindustan”. He was not destined to enjoy the
fruits of his conquests as he died shortly afterwards
in Agra on December 26, 1530.
Nasiruddin Humayun
• Humayun “the Fortunate” was the eldest son of Babur. He was
born in  Kabul in March 1508.
• He was appointed the governor of  Badakhshan at the age of 20.
• On the eve of the Battle of Panipat 1526 he was sent against Hamid
Khan who was defeated near Hissar Firoza
• He also participated in the Battle of Kanwaha.
• Humayun made a mistake of real politics in showing kindness to his
• Humayun had recovered the throne of Delhi after an interval of
about 15 years, but he was not destined to enjoy the fruits of his
victories for a long time. He died on 26th January 1556, by an
accidental fall from the roof of his library and fractured his head.
Sher Shah Suri
• Sher Shah was one of the greatest administrator and
rulers of the medieval India. The original name of
Sher Shah, the lion king, was Farid. 
•  Farid is said to have been born in the Punjab in 1472
• Humayun was defeated by Sher khan in the battles of
Chausa and in the battle of Kanauj and was forsed to
fled away from the battle field.
•  He wanted to turn out the Mughals from India and
establishedthe Afghan rule once again
• Akbar (Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, 14 October
1542 – 1605) was the 3rd Mughal Emperor. He was born in 
Umarkot,(now Pakistan). He was the son of 2nd Mughal
 Emperor Humayun
• Akbar became the king in 1556 at the age of 13 when his
father died. Bairam Khan was appointed as Akbar's regent
• Akbar was a Muslim. He realized that to establish a strong
empire, he had to gain the confidence of his Hindu people
who were the majority in India.
• The Akbarnāma means the Book of Akbar. It is the official
biographical account of Akbar written by Abu Fazal
Bahadur Shah Zafar
• He was born on October 24, 1775 and was the son of
Akbar shah II.
• Bahadur Shah himself was quite uninterested in the
• He had no imperial interest. His only interest was
• He married Zeenat Mahal in 1840 who gave birth to
his favouite son Mir Jawan Bakht. She had great
influence upon the emperor who handed over all his
powers to his beloved wife.
Decline of Bahadur Shah Zafar
• Bahadur Shah II, better known as Bahadur Shah Zafar in history was the last
Mughal Emperor who remained at helm from 1837 to 1857
• The most significant event taking place during his reign was the uprising of
1857. The people of India made a concerted effort to liberate their country the
foreign occupation. The uprising sprung from Meerut where sepoy revolted
and marched towards Delhi. They declared Bahadur Shah Zafar as the emperor
of India who also accepted their allegiance. The emperor nominated his son
Mirza Mughal as the commander in chief of the armed forces. The situation
was highly chaotic but ultimately the revolt was suppressed by the British.
Bahadur Shah Zafar took refuge in the Humayun’s tomb from where he was
apprehended by Major William Hudson. The very next day his sons Mirza
Mughal, Mirza Khizzer Sultan and grandson Mirza Abu Bakar were executed.
Bahadur Shah himself was exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862 at the age
of 87. This marked the end of the Mughal rule in India.