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 Datus, Rajahs and
 Spanish colony
 Crown Colony
Philippine Revolution
La Liga Filipina
Jose Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Graciano López Jaena
Mariano Ponce
La Solidaridad
Andres Bonifacio
Gregorio del Pilar
Melchora Aquino

First Philippine Republic

Emilio Aguinaldo

Apolinario Mabini
Pedro Paterno
Mariano Trias
Philippine-American War
territory US Military
MacArthur, Jr.
Governor: Arthur
Commonwealth of the Philippines

Quezon, Manuel L.
Republic of the Philippines

Third Republic of the Philippines

Manuel Roxas
Elpidio Quirino
Ramon Magsaysay
Carlos P. Garcia
Diosdado Macapagal
MartialLaw Era

Ferdinand Marcos
Benigno Aquino, Jr.
EDSA Revolution
Fifth Republic of the Philippine s
Corazon Aquino
Fidel Ramos
Joseph Estrada

Benigno Aquino III
Philippine System of
Government and Politics
From the time when the Philippines declared itself a sovereign
state in 1898, the nation has had four major constitutions:

(1)the 1899 constitution, which established the first republic

in Asia;

(2)the 1935 constitution, which served as the basic law during

the period of self-government while the Philippines was still
under American rule and after it became independent in 1946;

(3)the 1973 constitution, which allowed Ferdinand Marcos

to continue to hold office as president; and

(4)the 1987 constitution, upon which the present government

is based, which essentially restored institutions and processes
dismantled by Marcos during his regime
The Executive Branch
 As chief executive, the president has the power to
execute laws.
 The president is assisted by a cabinet, which
currently comprises twenty-three departments.
 Among the more important departments are Foreign
Affairs, National Defense, Finance, Interior and Local
Government, Justice, and Trade and
 Both president and vice president are elected at large for
a six-year term with no possibility of reelection.

The executive branch consists of the President and his Cabinet. The Senate and
the House of Representatives make up the bicameral legislature. The Supreme
Court heads the systems of courts under the judicial branch.
The Legislative Branch
 The Philippine Congress is a bicameral body, the upper house
being the Senate and the lower house being the House of
 These two houses possess equal power, although budgetary
bills must originate in the lower house, while treaty
ratification rests exclusively with the upper house.

 Congress consists of a24-member Senate and a 250-member House of

Representatives. The voters of the entire nation elect senators to six-year terms.
 Voters from different districts elect 200 of the representatives to three-year terms.
The remaining 50 representatives are selected from lists drawn up by the political
parties to ensure representation of women, ethnic minorities, and certain economic
and occupational groups.
 The number selected from each party's list is about one-fourth of the number of the
party's elected representatives. All Philippine citizens who are at least 18 years old
may vote.
The Judiciary
Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court and in
the lower courts.

Members of the judiciary are chosen by the president from

a list of nominees provided by the Judicial and Bar Council,
a constitutional body composed of representatives from the
executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government,
the legal profession, and the private sector.

Once appointed, judges have secure tenure and can serve

until the age of seventy or until they become
Constitutional Commissions
The constitution also provides for independent
constitutional commissions, namely, the Civil Service
Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the
Commission on Audit.
Local Governments
The lowest political unit in the Philippines
is the barangay (village).

The barangay is administered by a council headed by a

punong barangay (chairperson).

Several barangays make up a city or municipality.

Administrative subdivisions
The Philippines is divided into a hierarchy of local
government units (LGUs) with the province as the
primary unit. As of 2007, there are 81 provinces in the

International organization participation

The Philippines is a founding and active member of
the UN since its inception on October 24, 1945 and is
a founding member of the ASEAN.
Islam Influence on the Political

Islam has a great influence on the political system of the natives

in the Southern Philippines. The sultan of the Muslim
community is still the sultan of Muslim provinces.
The Philippine Administrative
The administrative system of the Republic of the
Philippines is comprised of a central government and its
territorial and political subdivisions, which enjoy local
autonomy: the provinces, cities, municipalities and
Polit ics of t he